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Toxins 2018, 10(6), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10060238

A Novel ShK-Like Toxic Peptide from the Transcriptome of the Cnidarian Palythoa caribaeorum Displays Neuroprotection and Cardioprotection in Zebrafish

1
State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine and Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, China
2
Department of Computer and Information Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau, China
3
Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
4
Shenzhen Rongxin Biotechnology Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518054, China
5
Department of Biology, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055, China
6
Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Institute for Marine Sciences, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza 60165-081, Brazil
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Marine Biotoxins)
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Abstract

Palythoa caribaeorum (class Anthozoa) is a zoantharian which, together with other cnidarians, like jellyfishes, hydra, and sea anemones, possesses specialized structures in its tissues, the cnidocytes, which deliver an array of toxins in order to capture prey and deter predators. The whole transcriptome of P. caribaeroum was deep sequenced, and a diversity of toxin-related peptide sequences were identified, and some retrieved for functional analysis. In this work, a peptide precursor containing a ShK domain, named PcShK3, was analyzed by means of computational processing, comprising structural phylogenetic analysis, model prediction, and dynamics simulation of peptide-receptor interaction. The combined data indicated that PcShK3 is a distinct peptide which is homologous to a cluster of peptides belonging to the ShK toxin family. In vivo, PcShK3 distributed across the vitelline membrane and accumulated in the yolk sac stripe of zebrafish larvae. Notably, it displayed a significant cardio-protective effect in zebrafish in concentrations inferior to the IC50 (<43.53 ± 6.45 µM), while in high concentrations (>IC50), it accumulated in the blood and caused pericardial edema, being cardiotoxic to zebrafish larvae. Remarkably, PcShK3 suppressed the 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity on the locomotive behavior of zebrafish. The present results indicated that PcShK3 is a novel member of ShK toxin family, and has the intrinsic ability to induce neuro- and cardio-protective effects or cause cardiac toxicity, according to its effective concentration. View Full-Text
Keywords: zoantharian; ShK-like peptide; dynamics simulation; voltage-gated K+ ion channel; calcium-activated K+ ion channel; animal toxins zoantharian; ShK-like peptide; dynamics simulation; voltage-gated K+ ion channel; calcium-activated K+ ion channel; animal toxins
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Liao, Q.; Gong, G.; Siu, S.W.I.; Wong, C.T.T.; Yu, H.; Tse, Y.C.; Rádis-Baptista, G.; Lee, S.M.-Y. A Novel ShK-Like Toxic Peptide from the Transcriptome of the Cnidarian Palythoa caribaeorum Displays Neuroprotection and Cardioprotection in Zebrafish. Toxins 2018, 10, 238.

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