Role of Uremic Toxins for Kidney, Cardiovascular, and Bone Dysfunction
AbstractWith decreasing kidney function, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mineral bone disorders frequently emerge in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). For these patients, in addition to the traditional risk factors, non-traditional CKD-specific risk factors are also associated with such diseases and conditions. One of these non-traditional risk factors is the accumulation of uremic toxins (UTs). In addition, the accumulation of UTs further deteriorates kidney function. Recently, a huge number of UTs have been identified. Although many experimental and clinical studies have reported associations between UTs and the progression of CKD, CVD, and bone disease, these relationships are very complex and have not been fully elucidated. Among the UTs, indoxyl sulfate, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and p-cresylsulfate have been of particular focus, up until now. In this review, we summarize the pathophysiological influences of these UTs on the kidney, cardiovascular system, and bone, and discuss the clinical data regarding the harmful effects of these UTs on diseases and conditions. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Fujii, H.; Goto, S.; Fukagawa, M. Role of Uremic Toxins for Kidney, Cardiovascular, and Bone Dysfunction. Toxins 2018, 10, 202.
Fujii H, Goto S, Fukagawa M. Role of Uremic Toxins for Kidney, Cardiovascular, and Bone Dysfunction. Toxins. 2018; 10(5):202.Chicago/Turabian Style
Fujii, Hideki; Goto, Shunsuke; Fukagawa, Masafumi. 2018. "Role of Uremic Toxins for Kidney, Cardiovascular, and Bone Dysfunction." Toxins 10, no. 5: 202.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.