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Toxins 2018, 10(2), 63; doi:10.3390/toxins10020063

Validation of a Method for Cylindrospermopsin Determination in Vegetables: Application to Real Samples Such as Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

Area of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sevilla, C/Profesor García González 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain
Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research—CIIMAR/CIMAR, University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos s/n, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4069-007 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 5th Iberoamerican Cyanotoxins Meeting)
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Reports on the occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) have increased worldwide because of CYN toxic effects in humans and animals. If contaminated waters are used for plant irrigation, these could represent a possible CYN exposure route for humans. For the first time, a method employing solid phase extraction and quantification by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) of CYN was optimized in vegetables matrices such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa). The validated method showed a linear range, from 5 to 500 ng CYN g−1 of fresh weight (f.w.), and detection and quantitation limits (LOD and LOQ) of 0.22 and 0.42 ng CYN g−1 f.w., respectively. The mean recoveries ranged between 85 and 104%, and the intermediate precision from 12.7 to 14.7%. The method showed to be robust for the three different variables tested. Moreover, it was successfully applied to quantify CYN in edible lettuce leaves exposed to CYN-contaminated water (10 µg L−1), showing that the tolerable daily intake (TDI) in the case of CYN could be exceeded in elderly high consumers. The validated method showed good results in terms of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and robustness for CYN determination in leaf vegetables such as lettuce. More studies are needed in order to prevent the risks associated with the consumption of CYN-contaminated vegetables. View Full-Text
Keywords: cylindrospermopsin; UPLC–MS/MS; method validation; lettuce cylindrospermopsin; UPLC–MS/MS; method validation; lettuce

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Prieto, A.I.; Guzmán-Guillén, R.; Díez-Quijada, L.; Campos, A.; Vasconcelos, V.; Jos, Á.; Cameán, A.M. Validation of a Method for Cylindrospermopsin Determination in Vegetables: Application to Real Samples Such as Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Toxins 2018, 10, 63.

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