Ultrasound Guidance for Botulinum Neurotoxin Chemodenervation Procedures
AbstractInjections of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are prescribed by clinicians for a variety of disorders that cause over-activity of muscles; glands; pain and other structures. Accurately targeting the structure for injection is one of the principle goals when performing BoNTs procedures. Traditionally; injections have been guided by anatomic landmarks; palpation; range of motion; electromyography or electrical stimulation. Ultrasound (US) based imaging based guidance overcomes some of the limitations of traditional techniques. US and/or US combined with traditional guidance techniques is utilized and or recommended by many expert clinicians; authors and in practice guidelines by professional academies. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of available guidance techniques including US as well as technical aspects of US guidance and a focused literature review related to US guidance for chemodenervation procedures including BoNTs injection. View Full-Text
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Alter, K.E.; Karp, B.I. Ultrasound Guidance for Botulinum Neurotoxin Chemodenervation Procedures. Toxins 2018, 10, 18.
Alter KE, Karp BI. Ultrasound Guidance for Botulinum Neurotoxin Chemodenervation Procedures. Toxins. 2018; 10(1):18.Chicago/Turabian Style
Alter, Katharine E.; Karp, Barbara I. 2018. "Ultrasound Guidance for Botulinum Neurotoxin Chemodenervation Procedures." Toxins 10, no. 1: 18.
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