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Toxins 2018, 10(1), 10; doi:10.3390/toxins10010010

Identification of Immunoreactive Peptides of Toxins to Simultaneously Assess the Neutralization Potency of Antivenoms against Neurotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Naja atra Venom

1
National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan
2
Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, Department of Life Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan
3
Institute of Biotechnology, Department of Medical Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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Abstract

Assessing the neutralization capability of nonlethal but medically relevant toxins in venom has been a challenging task. Nowadays, neutralization efficacy is evaluated based simply on the survival rates of animals injected with antivenom together with a predefined dose of venom, which can determine potency against neurotoxicity but not validate the capability to neutralize cytotoxin-induced complications. In this study, a high correlation with in-vivo and in-vitro neutralization assays was established using the immunoreactive peptides identified from short-chain neurotoxin and cytotoxin A3. These peptides contain conserved residues associated with toxin activities and a competition assay indicated that these peptides could specifically block the antibody binding to toxin and affect the neutralization potency of antivenom. Moreover, the titers of peptide-specific antibody in antivenoms or mouse antisera were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) simultaneously, and the results indicated that Taiwanese bivalent antivenom (BAV) and Vietnamese snake antivenom-Naja (SAV-Naja) exhibited superior neutralization potency against the lethal effect of short-chain neurotoxin (sNTX) and cytotoxicity of cardiotoxin/cytotoxin (CTX), respectively. Thus, the reported peptide ELISA shows not only its potential for antivenom prequalification use, but also its capability of justifying the cross-neutralization potency of antivenoms against Naja atra venom toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Naja atra; antivenom; neutralization; assessment; immunoreactive peptide; ELISA Naja atra; antivenom; neutralization; assessment; immunoreactive peptide; ELISA
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, B.-S.; Wu, W.-G.; Lin, M.-H.; Li, C.-H.; Jiang, B.-R.; Wu, S.-C.; Leng, C.-H.; Sung, W.-C. Identification of Immunoreactive Peptides of Toxins to Simultaneously Assess the Neutralization Potency of Antivenoms against Neurotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Naja atra Venom. Toxins 2018, 10, 10.

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