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Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae
Southern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, 1100 Robert E. Lee Boulevard, New Orleans, LA 70124, USA
School of Pharmacy, Iwate Medical University, 2-1-1 Nishitokuta, Yahaba, Iwate 028-3694, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2009; in revised form: 3 November 2009 / Accepted: 4 November 2009 / Published: 6 November 2009
Abstract: Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines what is currently known about the toxicity of CPA to animals and humans, both by itself or in combination with other mycotoxins. The review also discusses CPA biosynthesis and the genetic diversity of CPA production in A. flavus/oryzae populations.
Keywords: Aspergillus; cyclopiazonic acid; gene cluster; non-ribosomal peptide synthase
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MDPI and ACS Style
Chang, P.-K.; Ehrlich, K.C.; Fujii, I. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae. Toxins 2009, 1, 74-99.
Chang P-K, Ehrlich KC, Fujii I. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae. Toxins. 2009; 1(2):74-99.
Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Fujii, Isao. 2009. "Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae." Toxins 1, no. 2: 74-99.