Toxins 2009, 1(2), 74-99; doi:10.3390/toxins1020074
Review

Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

1,* email, 1email and 2email
Received: 9 October 2009; in revised form: 3 November 2009 / Accepted: 4 November 2009 / Published: 6 November 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines what is currently known about the toxicity of CPA to animals and humans, both by itself or in combination with other mycotoxins. The review also discusses CPA biosynthesis and the genetic diversity of CPA production in A. flavus/oryzae populations.
Keywords: Aspergillus; cyclopiazonic acid; gene cluster; non-ribosomal peptide synthase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, P.-K.; Ehrlich, K.C.; Fujii, I. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae. Toxins 2009, 1, 74-99.

AMA Style

Chang P-K, Ehrlich KC, Fujii I. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae. Toxins. 2009; 1(2):74-99.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Fujii, Isao. 2009. "Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae." Toxins 1, no. 2: 74-99.

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