Toxins 2009, 1(1), 37-58; doi:10.3390/toxins1010037
Review

Predicted Roles of the Uncharacterized Clustered Genes in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis

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Received: 11 August 2009; in revised form: 22 September 2009 / Accepted: 24 September 2009 / Published: 25 September 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Biosynthesis of the toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs) requires the activity of more than 27 enzymes. The roles in biosynthesis of newly described enzymes are discussed in this review. We suggest that HypC catalyzes the oxidation of norsolorinic acid anthrone; AvfA (AflI), the ring-closure step in formation of hydroxyversicolorone; HypB, the second oxidation step in conversion of O-methylsterigmatocystin to AF; and HypE and NorA (AflE), the final two steps in AFB1 formation. HypD, an integral membrane protein, affects fungal development and lowers AF production while AflJ (AflS), has a partial methyltransferase domain that may be important in its function as a transcriptional co-activator.
Keywords: biosynthesis; oxidation; enzymes; Aspergillus; secondary metabolism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ehrlich, K.C. Predicted Roles of the Uncharacterized Clustered Genes in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis. Toxins 2009, 1, 37-58.

AMA Style

Ehrlich KC. Predicted Roles of the Uncharacterized Clustered Genes in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis. Toxins. 2009; 1(1):37-58.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ehrlich, Kenneth C. 2009. "Predicted Roles of the Uncharacterized Clustered Genes in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis." Toxins 1, no. 1: 37-58.

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