Next Article in Journal
Immune Response to Chlamydophila abortus POMP91B Protein in the Context of Different Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMP); Role of Antigen in the Orientation of Immune Response
Next Article in Special Issue
Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Oxazolone-Induced Delayed Type Hypersensitivity Reaction in the Adult Yucatan Pigs. A Useful Model for Drug Development and Validation
Toxins 2009, 1(1), 37-58; doi:10.3390/toxins1010037
Review

Predicted Roles of the Uncharacterized Clustered Genes in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis

Received: 11 August 2009; in revised form: 22 September 2009 / Accepted: 24 September 2009 / Published: 25 September 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1112 KB, uploaded 25 September 2009]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Biosynthesis of the toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs) requires the activity of more than 27 enzymes. The roles in biosynthesis of newly described enzymes are discussed in this review. We suggest that HypC catalyzes the oxidation of norsolorinic acid anthrone; AvfA (AflI), the ring-closure step in formation of hydroxyversicolorone; HypB, the second oxidation step in conversion of O-methylsterigmatocystin to AF; and HypE and NorA (AflE), the final two steps in AFB1 formation. HypD, an integral membrane protein, affects fungal development and lowers AF production while AflJ (AflS), has a partial methyltransferase domain that may be important in its function as a transcriptional co-activator.
Keywords: biosynthesis; oxidation; enzymes; Aspergillus; secondary metabolism biosynthesis; oxidation; enzymes; Aspergillus; secondary metabolism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Ehrlich, K.C. Predicted Roles of the Uncharacterized Clustered Genes in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis. Toxins 2009, 1, 37-58.

AMA Style

Ehrlich KC. Predicted Roles of the Uncharacterized Clustered Genes in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis. Toxins. 2009; 1(1):37-58.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ehrlich, Kenneth C. 2009. "Predicted Roles of the Uncharacterized Clustered Genes in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis." Toxins 1, no. 1: 37-58.


Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert