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Toxins 2009, 1(1), 37-58; doi:10.3390/toxins1010037

Predicted Roles of the Uncharacterized Clustered Genes in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis

Southern Regional Research Center, ARS, USDA/1100 Robert E. Lee Blvd, New Orleans, LA 70124, USA
Received: 11 August 2009 / Revised: 22 September 2009 / Accepted: 24 September 2009 / Published: 25 September 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Biosynthesis of the toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs) requires the activity of more than 27 enzymes. The roles in biosynthesis of newly described enzymes are discussed in this review. We suggest that HypC catalyzes the oxidation of norsolorinic acid anthrone; AvfA (AflI), the ring-closure step in formation of hydroxyversicolorone; HypB, the second oxidation step in conversion of O-methylsterigmatocystin to AF; and HypE and NorA (AflE), the final two steps in AFB1 formation. HypD, an integral membrane protein, affects fungal development and lowers AF production while AflJ (AflS), has a partial methyltransferase domain that may be important in its function as a transcriptional co-activator.
Keywords: biosynthesis; oxidation; enzymes; Aspergillus; secondary metabolism biosynthesis; oxidation; enzymes; Aspergillus; secondary metabolism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Ehrlich, K.C. Predicted Roles of the Uncharacterized Clustered Genes in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis. Toxins 2009, 1, 37-58.

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