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Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 961; doi:10.3390/nu9090961

Iodine Intakes of Victorian Schoolchildren Measured Using 24-h Urinary Iodine Excretion

1
Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Locked Bag 20000, Waurn Ponds, Geelong, VIC 3220, Australia
2
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, 362 Leith St, North Dunedin, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [267 KB, uploaded 31 August 2017]

Abstract

Mandatory fortification of bread with iodized salt was introduced in Australia in 2009, and studies using spot urine collections conducted post fortification indicate that Australian schoolchildren are now replete. However an accurate estimate of daily iodine intake utilizing 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE μg/day) has not been reported and compared to the estimated average requirement (EAR). This study aimed to assess daily total iodine intake and status of a sample of primary schoolchildren using 24-h urine samples. Victorian primary school children provided 24-h urine samples between 2011 and 2013, from which urinary iodine concentration (UIC, μg/L) and total iodine excretion (UIE, μg/day) as an estimate of intake was determined. Valid 24-h urine samples were provided by 650 children, mean (SD) age 9.3 (1.8) years (n = 359 boys). The mean UIE of 4–8 and 9–13 year olds was 94 (48) and 111 (57) μg/24-h, respectively, with 29% and 26% having a UIE below the age-specific EAR. The median (IQR) UIC was 124 (83,172) μg/L, with 36% of participants having a UIC < 100 μg/L. This convenience sample of Victorian schoolchildren were found to be iodine replete, based on UIC and estimated iodine intakes derived from 24-h urine collections, confirming the findings of the Australian Health Survey. View Full-Text
Keywords: iodine; urine; fortification; schoolchildren; Australia iodine; urine; fortification; schoolchildren; Australia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Beckford, K.; Grimes, C.A.; Margerison, C.; Riddell, L.J.; Skeaff, S.A.; Nowson, C.A. Iodine Intakes of Victorian Schoolchildren Measured Using 24-h Urinary Iodine Excretion. Nutrients 2017, 9, 961.

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