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Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 951; doi:10.3390/nu9090951

Urinary Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio Tracks the Changes in Salt Intake during an Experimental Feeding Study Using Standardized Low-Salt and High-Salt Meals among Healthy Japanese Volunteers

1
Department of Pharmacology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan
2
Department of Nephrology, Hypertension, Diabetology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan
3
Department of Medicine II, Endocrinology and Hypertension, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan
4
Research and Development Department, Omron Healthcare Co., Ltd., Muko 617-0002, Japan
5
Department of Public Health, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga 520-2192, Japan
6
Department of Pathology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
7
Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga 520-2192, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Abstract

The Na/K ratio is considered to be a useful index, the monitoring of which allows an effective Na reduction and K increase, because practical methods (self-monitoring devices and reliable individual estimates from spot urine) are available for assessing these levels in individuals. An intervention trial for lowering the Na/K ratio has demonstrated that a reduction of the Na/K ratio mainly involved Na reduction, with only a small change in K. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between dietary Na intake and the urinary Na/K molar ratio, using standardized low- and high-salt diets, with an equal dietary K intake, to determine the corresponding Na/K ratio. Fourteen healthy young adult volunteers ingested low-salt (3 g salt per day) and high-salt (20 g salt per day) meals for seven days each. Using a portable urinary Na/K meter, participants measured their spot urine at each voiding, and 24-h urine was collected on the last day of each diet period. On the last day of the unrestricted, low-salt, and high-salt diet periods, the group averages of the 24-h urine Na/K ratio were 4.2, 1.0, and 6.9, while the group averages of the daily mean spot urine Na/K ratio were 4.2, 1.1, and 6.6, respectively. The urinary Na/K ratio tracked changes in dietary salt intake, and reached a plateau approximately three days after each change in diet. Frequent monitoring of the spot urine Na/K ratio may help individuals adhere to an appropriate dietary Na intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary sodium intake; experimental feeding study; salt restriction; standardized diet; urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio dietary sodium intake; experimental feeding study; salt restriction; standardized diet; urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio
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Yatabe, M.S.; Iwahori, T.; Watanabe, A.; Takano, K.; Sanada, H.; Watanabe, T.; Ichihara, A.; Felder, R.A.; Miura, K.; Ueshima, H.; Kimura, J.; Yatabe, J. Urinary Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio Tracks the Changes in Salt Intake during an Experimental Feeding Study Using Standardized Low-Salt and High-Salt Meals among Healthy Japanese Volunteers. Nutrients 2017, 9, 951.

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