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Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 916; doi:10.3390/nu9080916

Development of Phenol-Enriched Olive Oil with Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Wastewater Produced by Physical Refining

1
Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy
2
Interdepartmental Research Center Nutrafood-Nutraceuticals and Food for Health, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy
3
Department of Life Science, University of Siena, Via Aldo Moro, 2, 53100 Siena, Italy
4
Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino, 56122 Pisa, Italy
5
Consorzio Polo Tecnologico Magona, Via Magona, 57023 Cecina (LI), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Abstract

While in the last few years the use of olive cake and mill wastewater as natural sources of phenolic compounds has been widely considered and several studies have focused on the development of new extraction methods and on the production of functional foods enriched with natural antioxidants, no data has been available on the production of a phenol-enriched refined olive oil with its own phenolic compounds extracted from wastewater produced during physical refining. In this study; we aimed to: (i) verify the effectiveness of a multi-step extraction process to recover the high-added-value phenolic compounds contained in wastewater derived from the preliminary washing degumming step of the physical refining of vegetal oils; (ii) evaluate their potential application for the stabilization of olive oil obtained with refined olive oils; and (iii) evaluate their antioxidant activity in an in vitro model of endothelial cells. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of using the refining wastewater as a source of bioactive compounds to improve the nutraceutical value as well as the antioxidant capacity of commercial olive oils. In the conditions adopted, the phenolic content significantly increased in the prototypes of phenol-enriched olive oils when compared with the control oil. View Full-Text
Keywords: refining wastewater; enriched olive oil; antioxidant capacity; phenols; tyrosol; hydroxytyrosol; in vitro model; endothelial cells; cardiovascular diseases; cancer diseases refining wastewater; enriched olive oil; antioxidant capacity; phenols; tyrosol; hydroxytyrosol; in vitro model; endothelial cells; cardiovascular diseases; cancer diseases
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Venturi, F.; Sanmartin, C.; Taglieri, I.; Nari, A.; Andrich, G.; Terzuoli, E.; Donnini, S.; Nicolella, C.; Zinnai, A. Development of Phenol-Enriched Olive Oil with Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Wastewater Produced by Physical Refining. Nutrients 2017, 9, 916.

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