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Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 910; doi:10.3390/nu9080910

Adapting the Healthy Eating Index 2010 for the Canadian Population: Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 150 College St., Toronto, ON M5S 3E2, Canada
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Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract

The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is a diet quality index shown to be associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Older versions of the HEI have been adapted for Canadian populations; however, no Canadian modification of the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) has been made. The aims of this study were: (a) to develop a Canadian adaptation of the HEI-2010 (i.e., Healthy Eating Index-Canada 2010 (HEI-C 2010)) by adapting the recommendations of the HEI-2010 to Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) 2007; (b) to evaluate the validity and reliability of the HEI-C 2010; and (c) to examine relationships between HEI-C 2010 scores with diet quality and the likelihood of being obese. Data from 12,805 participants (≥18 years) were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to test the association between compliance to the HEI-C 2010 recommendations and the likelihood of being obese, adjusting for errors in self-reported dietary data. The total mean error-corrected HEI-C 2010 score was 50.85 ± 0.35 out of 100. Principal component analysis confirmed multidimensionality of the HEI-C 2010, while Cronbach’s α = 0.78 demonstrated internal reliability. Participants in the fourth quartile of the HEI-C 2010 with the healthiest diets were less likely to consume refined grains and empty calories and more likely to consume beneficial nutrients and foods (p-trend < 0.0001). Lower adherence to the index recommendations was inversely associated with the likelihood of being obese; this association strengthened after correction for measurement error (Odds Ratio: 1.41; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.17–1.71). Closer adherence to Canada’s Food Guide 2007 assessed through the HEI-C 2010 was associated with improved diet quality and reductions in the likelihood of obesity when energy intake and measurement errors were taken into account. Consideration of energy requirements and energy density in future updates of Canada’s Food Guide are important and necessary to ensure broader application and usability of dietary quality indexes developed based on this national nutrition guideline. View Full-Text
Keywords: Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010; Healthy Eating Index-Canada (HEI-C); Canada’s Food Guide; obesity; chronic diseases; Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS); national nutrition survey Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010; Healthy Eating Index-Canada (HEI-C); Canada’s Food Guide; obesity; chronic diseases; Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS); national nutrition survey
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jessri, M.; Ng, A.P.; L’Abbé, M.R. Adapting the Healthy Eating Index 2010 for the Canadian Population: Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Nutrients 2017, 9, 910.

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