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Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 862; doi:10.3390/nu9080862

Inverse Associations between a Locally Validated Mediterranean Diet Index, Overweight/Obesity, and Metabolic Syndrome in Chilean Adults

1
Center of Molecular Nutrition and Chronic Diseases, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 8331150, Chile
2
Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 8331150, Chile
3
Department of Nutrition, Diabetes and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 8331150, Chile
Guadalupe Echeverría and Emma E. McGee equally contributed to this work and should be given equal credit as first authors.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract

Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are key risk factors for chronic disease. Dietary patterns are critical in the incidence and persistence of obesity and MetS, yet there is few data linking diet to obesity and MetS in Chile. Our objective was to use a locally validated diet index to evaluate adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and its correlations with overweight/obesity (OW/O) and MetS prevalence in Chilean adults. We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional online survey of Chilean adults with complete self-reported diet and body mass index data (n = 24,882). A subsample of 4348 users (17.5%) had valid MetS data. An inverse association was observed between adherence to Mediterranean diet and OW/O and MetS prevalence. As diet quality decreased from healthy, to moderately-healthy, to unhealthy, prevalence increased from 44.8, 51.1, to 60.9% for OW/O and from 13.4, 18.5, to 28.9% for MetS (p-values < 0.001). Adjusted odds ratios for OW/O and MetS were significantly higher in moderately-healthy (OR = 1.58 and 1.54) and unhealthy (OR = 2.20 and 2.49, respectively) diet groups in comparison to the healthy diet group. This study represents the first report on the relationship between Mediterranean diet and chronic disease risk in Chile. It suggests that the Mediterranean diet may be applied to manage chronic disease risk beyond the Mediterranean basin. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; diet quality index; metabolic syndrome; obesity; overweight; chronic disease; Chile Mediterranean diet; diet quality index; metabolic syndrome; obesity; overweight; chronic disease; Chile
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MDPI and ACS Style

Echeverría, G.; McGee, E.E.; Urquiaga, I.; Jiménez, P.; D’Acuña, S.; Villarroel, L.; Velasco, N.; Leighton, F.; Rigotti, A. Inverse Associations between a Locally Validated Mediterranean Diet Index, Overweight/Obesity, and Metabolic Syndrome in Chilean Adults. Nutrients 2017, 9, 862.

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