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Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 856; doi:10.3390/nu9080856

Cell-Surface and Nuclear Receptors in the Colon as Targets for Bacterial Metabolites and Its Relevance to Colon Health

Department of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA
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Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [256 KB, uploaded 10 August 2017]

Abstract

The symbiotic co-habitation of bacteria in the host colon is mutually beneficial to both partners. While the host provides the place and food for the bacteria to colonize and live, the bacteria in turn help the host in energy and nutritional homeostasis, development and maturation of the mucosal immune system, and protection against inflammation and carcinogenesis. In this review, we highlight the molecular mediators of the effective communication between the bacteria and the host, focusing on selective metabolites from the bacteria that serve as messengers to the host by acting through selective receptors in the host colon. These bacterial metabolites include the short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate, and butyrate, the tryptophan degradation products indole-3-aldehyde, indole-3-acetic, acid and indole-3-propionic acid, and derivatives of endogenous bile acids. The targets for these bacterial products in the host include the cell-surface G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41, GPR43, and GPR109A and the nuclear receptors aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and farnesoid X receptor (FXR). The chemical communication between these bacterial metabolite messengers and the host targets collectively has the ability to impact metabolism, gene expression, and epigenetics in colonic epithelial cells as well as in mucosal immune cells. The end result, for the most part, is the maintenance of optimal colonic health. View Full-Text
Keywords: colonic bacteria; symbiotic relationship; bacterial metabolites; molecular targets; cell-surface receptors; nuclear receptors; immune tolerance; colitis; colon cancer colonic bacteria; symbiotic relationship; bacterial metabolites; molecular targets; cell-surface receptors; nuclear receptors; immune tolerance; colitis; colon cancer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sivaprakasam, S.; Bhutia, Y.D.; Ramachandran, S.; Ganapathy, V. Cell-Surface and Nuclear Receptors in the Colon as Targets for Bacterial Metabolites and Its Relevance to Colon Health. Nutrients 2017, 9, 856.

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