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Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 832; doi:10.3390/nu9080832

Effects of the Exclusive Enteral Nutrition on the Microbiota Profile of Patients with Crohn’s Disease: A Systematic Review

1
Department of Pediatrics, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60123 Ancona, Italy
2
Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60123 Ancona, Italy
3
Department of Soil, Plant and Food Sciences, University of Bari A. Moro, 70126 Bari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
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Abstract

The mechanisms behind the efficacy of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) in Crohn’s disease (CD) remain poorly understood, despite the high rate of treatment response. Evidence accumulated in the last 20 years suggests that a positive shift of the disrupted microbiota is one of the treatment effects. The purpose of this study was to critically review and summarize data reporting the microbiological effects of EEN in patients with CD. Fourteen studies were considered in the review, overall involving 216 CD patients on EEN. The studies were heterogeneous in methods of microbiota analysis and exclusion criteria. The most frequently reported effect of EEN was a reduction in microbiota diversity, reversible when patients returned to a normal diet. The effect of EEN on specific bacteria was very variable in the different studies, partially due to methodological limitations of the mentioned studies. The EEN seem to induce some metabolomic changes, which are different in long-term responder patients compared to patients that relapse earlier. Bacterial changes can be relevant to explaining the efficacy of EEN; however, microbiological data obtained from rigorously performed studies and derived from last generation techniques are largely inconsistent. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiota; metabolome; exclusive enteral nutrition; Crohn’s disease; IBD; next generation sequencing; 16S rRNA; Faecalibacterium prausntzii microbiota; metabolome; exclusive enteral nutrition; Crohn’s disease; IBD; next generation sequencing; 16S rRNA; Faecalibacterium prausntzii
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Gatti, S.; Galeazzi, T.; Franceschini, E.; Annibali, R.; Albano, V.; Verma, A.K.; De Angelis, M.; Lionetti, M.E.; Catassi, C. Effects of the Exclusive Enteral Nutrition on the Microbiota Profile of Patients with Crohn’s Disease: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2017, 9, 832.

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