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Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 827; doi:10.3390/nu9080827

Dietary Flavonoid Intake Is Inversely Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk as Assessed by Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference among Adults in the United States

USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Food Surveys Research Group, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, BARC-West, Bldg 005, Rm 102, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350, USA
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Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
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Abstract

Although flavonoids may confer anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant benefits, no research has examined if flavonoid intake is related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk defined by anthropometric measures in the USA population. This study sought to determine whether flavonoid intake is associated with combined body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) measures indicative of high, very high, or extremely high (“high+”) risk for CVD, using one day of 24-h recall data from adult (≥20 years) participants in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Individuals were divided into categories of intake of total flavonoids and each flavonoid class, and adjusted estimates of the percentages at high+ CVD risk (based on BMI and WC, as per National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines) were calculated. Inverse linear trends were found in percentages of adults at high+ CVD risk by intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, and flavanones (p < 0.01). For individuals in the highest (versus the lowest) intake category of anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, and flavanones, relative risk and confidence intervals (RR and CI, respectively) were 0.86 (99% CI: 0.79, 0.93), 0.88 (99% CI: 0.79, 0.98), and 0.89 (99% CI: 0.80, 0.98), respectively. Research is needed to determine whether the inverse relationships found in this study are applicable to CVD endpoints at the population level. View Full-Text
Keywords: flavonoids; diet; cardiovascular disease risk; anthropometric measures; What We Eat in America; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) flavonoids; diet; cardiovascular disease risk; anthropometric measures; What We Eat in America; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sebastian, R.S.; Wilkinson Enns, C.; Goldman, J.D.; Moshfegh, A.J. Dietary Flavonoid Intake Is Inversely Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk as Assessed by Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference among Adults in the United States. Nutrients 2017, 9, 827.

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