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Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 646; doi:10.3390/nu9070646

Metabolic Effects of High Glycaemic Index Diets: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Feeding Studies in Mice and Rats

1
Charles Perkins Centre, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
2
Charles Perkins Centre, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 17 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Low glycaemic index (LGI) diets are often reported to benefit metabolic health, but the mechanism(s) responsible are not clear. This review aimed to systematically identify studies investigating metabolic effects of high glycaemic index (HGI) versus LGI diets in mice and rats. A meta-analysis was conducted to calculate an overall effect size, Hedge’s standardised mean differences (hereafter d), for each trait, with moderator variables considered in subsequent meta-regressions. Across 30 articles, a HGI diet increased five of the seven traits examined: body weight (d = 0.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.31, 0.79), fat mass (d = 1.08; 0.67, 1.49), fasting circulating insulin levels (d = 0.40; 0.09, 0.71), and glucose (d = 0.80; 0.35, 1.25) and insulin (d = 1.14; 0.50, 1.77) area under the curve during a glucose tolerance test. However, there was substantial heterogeneity among the effects for all traits and the small number of studies enabled only limited investigation of possible confounding factors. HGI diets favour body weight gain, increased adiposity and detrimentally affect parameters of glucose homeostasis in mice and rats, but these effects may not be a direct result of GI per se; rather they may be due to variation in other dietary constituents, such as dietary fibre, a factor which is known to reduce the GI of food and promote health via GI-independent mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: glycaemic index; glycaemic index; mice; rats; metabolism; glucose homeostasis glycaemic index; glycaemic index; mice; rats; metabolism; glucose homeostasis
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Campbell, G.J.; Senior, A.M.; Bell-Anderson, K.S. Metabolic Effects of High Glycaemic Index Diets: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Feeding Studies in Mice and Rats. Nutrients 2017, 9, 646.

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