Next Article in Journal
Targeting Overconsumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages vs. Overall Poor Diet Quality for Cardiometabolic Diseases Risk Prevention: Place Your Bets!
Next Article in Special Issue
Protein Hydrolysates as Promoters of Non-Haem Iron Absorption
Previous Article in Journal
Comparison of Prognostic Impact between the Child-Pugh Score and Skeletal Muscle Mass for Patients with Liver Cirrhosis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Beetroot Juice Supplementation Improves High-Intensity Intermittent Type Exercise Performance in Trained Soccer Players
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 599; doi:10.3390/nu9060599

Phytosterols and Omega 3 Supplementation Exert Novel Regulatory Effects on Metabolic and Inflammatory Pathways: A Proteomic Study

1
Cardiovascular Science Institute—ICCC IIB-Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona, Spain
2
Ciber CV, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Ciber DEM, 28029 Madrid, Spain
4
Endocrinology Department, Hospital Sant Pau, IIB-Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona, Spain
5
Medicament ResearchCenter (CIM), Hospital Sant Pau, IIB-Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona, Spain
6
Cardiovascular Research Chair UAB, 08025 Barcelona, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this study.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2908 KB, uploaded 15 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains one of the major causes of death and disability worldwide. In addition to drug treatment, nutritional interventions or supplementations are becoming a health strategy for CVD prevention. Phytosterols (PhyS) are natural components that have been shown to reduce cholesterol levels; while poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), mainly omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids, have shown to reduce triglyceride levels. Here we aimed to investigate whether the proteins in the main lipoproteins (low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL)) as well as proteins in the lipid free plasma fraction (LPDP) were regulated by the intake of PhyS-milk or ω3-milk, in overweight healthy volunteers by a proteomic based systems biology approach. The study was a longitudinal crossover trial, including thirty-two healthy volunteers with body mass index (BMI) 25–35 kg/m2 (Clinical Trial: ISRCTN78753338). Basal samples before any intervention and after 4 weeks of intake of PhyS or ω3-milk were analyzed. Proteomic profiling by two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by mass spectrometry-(MALDI/TOF), ELISA, Western blot, conventional biochemical analysis, and in-silico bioinformatics were performed. The intake of PhyS-milk did not induce changes in the lipid associated plasma protein fraction, whereas ω3-milk significantly increased apolipoprotein (Apo)- E LDL content (p = 0.043) and induced a coordinated increase in several HDL-associated proteins, Apo A-I, lecitin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), Apo D, and Apo L1 (p < 0.05 for all). Interestingly, PhyS-milk intake induced a reduction in inflammatory molecules not seen after ω3-milk intake. Serum amyloid P component (SAP) was reduced in the LPDP protein fraction (p = 0.001) of subjects taking PhyS-milk and C-C motif chemokine 2 (CCL2)expression detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis in white blood cells was significantly reduced (p = 0.013). No changes were observed in the lipid-free plasma proteome with ω3-milk. Our study provides novel results and highlights that the PhyS-milk induces attenuation of the pro-inflammatory pathways, whereas ω3-milk induces improvement in lipid metabolic pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytosterols; omega 3; HDL; LDL; inflammation; lipid metabolism phytosterols; omega 3; HDL; LDL; inflammation; lipid metabolism
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lambert, C.; Cubedo, J.; Padró, T.; Sánchez-Hernández, J.; Antonijoan, R.M.; Perez, A.; Badimon, L. Phytosterols and Omega 3 Supplementation Exert Novel Regulatory Effects on Metabolic and Inflammatory Pathways: A Proteomic Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 599.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top