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Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 586; doi:10.3390/nu9060586

Exploring Diet Quality between Urban and Rural Dwelling Women of Reproductive Age

1
Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventative Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne 3004, Australia
2
Endocrinology and Diabetes Units, Monash Health, Melbourne 3004, Australia
3
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Public Health and Preventative Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne 3004, Australia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Abstract

Health disparities, including weight gain and obesity exist between urban and rural dwelling women. The primary aim was to compare diet quality in urban and rural women of reproductive age, and secondary analyses of the difference in macronutrient and micronutrient intake in urban and rural women, and the predictors of diet quality. Diet quality was assessed in urban (n = 149) and rural (n = 394) women by a modified version of the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI) energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and predictors of diet quality. Diet quality did not significantly differ between urban and rural women (mean ± standard deviation (SD), 84.8 ± 15.9 vs. 83.9 ± 16.5, p = 0.264). Rural women reported a significantly higher intake of protein, fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, cholesterol and iron and a higher score in the meat and meat alternatives component of the diet quality tool in comparison to urban women. In all women, a higher diet quality was associated with higher annual household income (>$Australian dollar (AUD) 80,000 vs. <$AUD80,000 p = 0.013) and working status (working fulltime/part-time vs. unemployed p = 0.043). Total diet quality did not differ in urban and rural women; however, a higher macronutrient consumption pattern was potentially related to a higher lean meat intake in rural women. Women who are unemployed and on a lower income are an important target group for future dietary interventions aiming to improve diet quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary assessment; diet quality; nutrition; diet; rural-urban; women; reproduction; weight gain prevention dietary assessment; diet quality; nutrition; diet; rural-urban; women; reproduction; weight gain prevention
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Martin, J.C.; Moran, L.J.; Teede, H.J.; Ranasinha, S.; Lombard, C.B.; Harrison, C.L. Exploring Diet Quality between Urban and Rural Dwelling Women of Reproductive Age. Nutrients 2017, 9, 586.

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