Direct vs. Expressed Breast Milk Feeding: Relation to Duration of Breastfeeding
AbstractBackground: Studies examining direct vs. expressed breast milk feeding are scarce. We explored the predictors of mode of breastfeeding and its association with breastfeeding duration in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Methods: We included 541 breastfeeding mother—infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes cohort. Mode of breastfeeding (feeding directly at the breast, expressed breast milk (EBM) feeding only, or mixed feeding (a combination of the former 2 modes)) was ascertained at three months postpartum. Ordinal logistic regression analyses identified predictors of breast milk expression. Cox regression models examined the association between mode of breastfeeding and duration of any and of full breastfeeding. Results: Maternal factors independently associated with a greater likelihood of breast milk expression instead of direct breastfeeding were Chinese (vs. Indian) ethnicity, (adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI; 3.41, 1.97–5.91), tertiary education (vs. secondary education or lower) (2.22, 1.22–4.04), primiparity (1.54, 1.04–2.26) and employment during pregnancy (2.53, 1.60–4.02). Relative to those who fed their infants directly at the breast, mothers who fed their infants EBM only had a higher likelihood of early weaning among all mothers who were breastfeeding (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CI; 2.20, 1.61–3.02), and among those who were fully breastfeeding (2.39, 1.05–5.41). Mothers who practiced mixed feeding, however, were not at higher risk of earlier termination of any or of full breastfeeding. Conclusions: Mothers who fed their infants EBM exclusively, but not those who practiced mixed feeding, were at a higher risk of terminating breastfeeding earlier than those who fed their infants directly at the breast. More education and support are required for women who feed their infants EBM only. View Full-Text
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Pang, W.W.; Bernard, J.Y.; Thavamani, G.; Chan, Y.H.; Fok, D.; Soh, S.-E.; Chua, M.C.; Lim, S.B.; Shek, L.P.; Yap, F.; Tan, K.H.; Gluckman, P.D.; Godfrey, K.M.; van Dam, R.M.; Kramer, M.S.; Chong, Y.-S. Direct vs. Expressed Breast Milk Feeding: Relation to Duration of Breastfeeding. Nutrients 2017, 9, 547.
Pang WW, Bernard JY, Thavamani G, Chan YH, Fok D, Soh S-E, Chua MC, Lim SB, Shek LP, Yap F, Tan KH, Gluckman PD, Godfrey KM, van Dam RM, Kramer MS, Chong Y-S. Direct vs. Expressed Breast Milk Feeding: Relation to Duration of Breastfeeding. Nutrients. 2017; 9(6):547.Chicago/Turabian Style
Pang, Wei W.; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Thavamani, Geetha; Chan, Yiong H.; Fok, Doris; Soh, Shu-E; Chua, Mei C.; Lim, Sok B.; Shek, Lynette P.; Yap, Fabian; Tan, Kok H.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; van Dam, Rob M.; Kramer, Michael S.; Chong, Yap-Seng. 2017. "Direct vs. Expressed Breast Milk Feeding: Relation to Duration of Breastfeeding." Nutrients 9, no. 6: 547.
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