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Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 481; doi:10.3390/nu9050481

The Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency and Deficiency and Their Relationship with Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk in Adults Receiving Long-Term Home Parenteral Nutrition

1
Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
2
Nutrition Services, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB T5J 3E4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenteral Nutrition 2016)
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Abstract

It has been demonstrated that low bone mass and vitamin D deficiency occur in adult patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and its relationship with bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk in long-term HPN patients. Methods: A retrospective chart review of all 186 patients in the HPN registry followed by the Northern Alberta Home Parenteral Nutrition Program receiving HPN therapy >6 months with a 25 (OH) D level and BMD reported were studied. Results: The mean age at the initiation of HPN was 53.8 (20–79) years and 23 (37%) were male. The mean HPN duration was 56 (6–323) months and the most common diagnosis was short bowel syndrome. Based on a total of 186 patients, 62 patients were categorized based on serum vitamin D status as follows: 1 (24.2%) sufficient, 31 (50%) insufficient and 16 (25.8%) deficient. Despite an average of 1891 IU/day orally and 181 IU/day intravenously vitamin D, the mean vitamin D level was 25.6 ng/mL (insufficiency) and 26.2 ± 11.9 ng/mL in patients with the highest 10-year fracture risk. Conclusion: Suboptimal vitamin D levels are common among patients on long-term HPN despite nutrient intake that should meet requirements. View Full-Text
Keywords: home parenteral nutrition; vitamin D; vitamin D insufficiency; vitamin D deficiency; bone mineral density; fracture home parenteral nutrition; vitamin D; vitamin D insufficiency; vitamin D deficiency; bone mineral density; fracture
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Napartivaumnuay, N.; Gramlich, L. The Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency and Deficiency and Their Relationship with Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk in Adults Receiving Long-Term Home Parenteral Nutrition. Nutrients 2017, 9, 481.

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