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Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 430; doi:10.3390/nu9050430

Micronutrient Status among Pregnant Women in Zinder, Niger and Risk Factors Associated with Deficiency

1
Program in International and Community Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2
Helen Keller International, Niamey 0000, Niger
3
USDA, ARS, Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, CA 95616, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 March 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract

Anemia and micronutrient (MN) deficiencies in pregnant women are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. In Niger, 58.6% of pregnant women are anemic; however, MN statuses are unknown. The study objectives were to estimate the prevalence of MN deficiencies among pregnant women in Zinder, Niger and explore associated risk factors. Pregnant women living in randomly selected rural villages (n = 88) were included. Capillary and venous blood samples (n = 770) were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb) and plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), zinc (pZn), retinol binding protein (RBP), folate and vitamin B12. C-reactive protein and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein were measured to adjust for inflammation. The prevalence of MN deficiencies in pregnant woman was high, indicative of a severe public health problem. Prevalence of iron deficiency was 20.7% and 35.7%, by ferritin (<15 µg/L) and sTfR (>8.3 mg/L), respectively. In total, 40.7% of women had low pZn (<50 µg/dL), 79.7% had marginal RBP (<1.32 µmol/L), 44.3% of women had low folate (<10 nmol/L) and 34.8% had low B12 concentrations (<148 pmol/L). Common risk factors associated with MN status included gravidity, mid-upper-arm circumference, geophagy, malaria, and result of the woman’s last pregnancy. Interventions to promote the strengthening of antenatal care, and access and adherence to nutrition and health interventions are critical among pregnant women in this population. View Full-Text
Keywords: micronutrient; deficiency; anemia; pregnancy; antenatal care; iron; zinc; vitamin micronutrient; deficiency; anemia; pregnancy; antenatal care; iron; zinc; vitamin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wessells, K.R.; Ouédraogo, C.T.; Young, R.R.; Faye, M.T.; Brito, A.; Hess, S.Y. Micronutrient Status among Pregnant Women in Zinder, Niger and Risk Factors Associated with Deficiency. Nutrients 2017, 9, 430.

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