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Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 383; doi:10.3390/nu9040383

Beverage Consumption Habits among the European Population: Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes

1
International Chair for Advanced Studies on Hydration (ICASH), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain
2
Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain
3
CIBER OBN, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Carlos III Health Institute, 28029 Madrid, Spain
4
Equipe de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle, Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie et Statistiques, Université Paris 13, Inserm (U1153), Inra (U1125), Cnam, COMUE Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-93017 Bobigny, France
5
CREA-Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria–Centro di ricerca per gli alimenti e la nutrizione, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2016 / Revised: 23 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
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Abstract

Background: Fluid and water intake have received limited attention in epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to compare the average daily consumption of foods and beverages in adults of selective samples of the European Union (EU) population in order to understand the contribution of these to the total water intake (TWI), evaluate if the EU adult population consumes adequate amounts of total water (TW) according to the current guidelines, and to illustrate the real water intake in Europe. Methods: Three national European dietary surveys have been selected: Spain used the Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance Study (ANIBES) population database, Italy analyzed data from the Italian National Food Consumption Survey (INRAN-SCAI 2005-06), and French data came from the NutriNet-Santé database. Mean daily consumption was used to compare between individuals. TWI was compared with European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference values for adult men and women. Results: On average, in Spain, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 22.9) for men and 1.6 L (SE 19.4) for women; Italy recorded 1.7 L (SE 16.9) for men and 1.7 L (SE 14.1) for women; and France recorded 2.3 L (SE 4.7) for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4) for women. With the exception of women in France, neither men nor women consumed sufficient amounts of water according to EFSA reference values. Conclusions: This study highlights the need to formulate appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase TWI in the EU population. The future of beverage intake assessment requires the use of new instruments, techniques, and the application of the new available technologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: total water intake; beverages; adults; France; Italy; Spain total water intake; beverages; adults; France; Italy; Spain
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Nissensohn, M.; Sánchez-Villegas, A.; Galan, P.; Turrini, A.; Arnault, N.; Mistura, L.; Ortiz-Andrellucchi, A.; Edelenyi, F.S.; D’Addezio, L.; Serra-Majem, L. Beverage Consumption Habits among the European Population: Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes. Nutrients 2017, 9, 383.

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