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Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 336; doi:10.3390/nu9040336

Effects of Two Different Dietary Patterns on Inflammatory Markers, Advanced Glycation End Products and Lipids in Subjects without Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomised Crossover Study

School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia
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Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 23 March 2017 / Accepted: 26 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017
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Abstract

Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of red and processed meat and refined grains are associated with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome and increased inflammatory and fibrinolytic markers. We hypothesised that a diet high in red and processed meat and refined grains (HMD) would increase inflammatory markers and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) compared with a diet high in dairy, whole grains, nuts and legumes (HWD). We performed a randomised crossover study of two four-week interventions in 51 participants without type 2 diabetes (15 men and 36 women aged 35.1 ± 15.6 years; body mass index: 27.7 ± 6.9 kg/m2). No baseline measurements were performed. Plasma fluorescent AGEs, carboxymethyllysine, glucose, insulin, lipids, hs-CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were analysed after four weeks on each diet. IL-6, hs-CRP, AGEs and carboxymethyllysine were not different between diets but PAI-1 was higher after the HMD than after HWD ((median and interquartile range) 158, 81 vs. 121, 53 ng/mL p < 0.001). PAI-1 on the HWD diet was inversely correlated with whole grains intake (p = 0.007). PAI-1 was inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity index (r = −0.45; p = 0.001) and positively correlated with serum total cholesterol (r = 0.35; p = 0.012) and serum triglyceride (r = 0.32; p = 0.021) on HMD. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12614000519651). View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary pattern; plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1; advanced glycation products; insulin sensitivity dietary pattern; plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1; advanced glycation products; insulin sensitivity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, Y.; Keogh, J.B.; Clifton, P.M. Effects of Two Different Dietary Patterns on Inflammatory Markers, Advanced Glycation End Products and Lipids in Subjects without Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomised Crossover Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 336.

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