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Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 288; doi:10.3390/nu9030288

Protective Effect of Protocatechuic Acid on TNBS-Induced Colitis in Mice Is Associated with Modulation of the SphK/S1P Signaling Pathway

1
Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), University of León, 24071 León, Spain
2
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), 24071, Spain
3
Pharmacy Service, Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León, 24071 León, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract

(1) Background: The present study aimed to investigate whether beneficial effects of protocatechuic acid (PCA) are associated with inhibition of the SphK/S1P axis and related signaling pathways in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of inflammatory bowel disease; (2) Methods: Colitis was induced in male Balb/c mice by intracolonic administration of 2 mg of TNBS. PCA (30 or 60 mg/kg body wt) was given intraperitoneally daily for five days; (3) Results: Administration of PCA prevented the macroscopic and microscopic damage to the colonic mucosa, the decrease in body weight gain and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity induced by TNBS. PCA-treated mice exhibited a lower oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and Nrf2 and reduced expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Following TNBS treatment mRNA levels, protein concentration and immunohistochemical labelling for SphK1 increased significantly. S1P production and expression of S1P receptor 1 and S1P phosphatase 2 were significantly elevated. However, there was a decreased expression of S1P lyase. Furthermore, TNBS-treated mice exhibited increased phosphorylation of AKT and ERK, and a higher expression of pSTAT3 and the NF-κB p65 subunit. PCA administration significantly prevented those changes; (4) Conclusions: Data obtained suggest a contribution of the SphK/S1P system and related signaling pathways to the anti-inflammatory effect of PCA. View Full-Text
Keywords: protocatechuic acid; colitis; inflammation; sphingolipids; SphK/S1P signaling protocatechuic acid; colitis; inflammation; sphingolipids; SphK/S1P signaling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Crespo, I.; San-Miguel, B.; Mauriz, J.L.; Ortiz de Urbina, J.J.; Almar, M.; Tuñón, M.J.; González-Gallego, J. Protective Effect of Protocatechuic Acid on TNBS-Induced Colitis in Mice Is Associated with Modulation of the SphK/S1P Signaling Pathway. Nutrients 2017, 9, 288.

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