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Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 240; doi:10.3390/nu9030240

Evaluating Changes in Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake after Receiving Personal FADS1 Genetic Information: A Randomized Nutrigenetic Intervention

1
Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
2
Department of Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
3
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Abstract

Nutrigenetics research is anticipated to lay the foundation for personalized dietary recommendations; however, it remains unclear if providing individuals with their personal genetic information changes dietary behaviors. Our objective was to evaluate if providing information for a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene changed omega-3 fatty acid (FA) intake and blood levels in young female adults (18–25 years). Participants were randomized into Genetic (intervention) and Non-Genetic (control) groups, with measurements taken at Baseline and Final (12 weeks). Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was assessed using an omega-3 food frequency questionnaire. Red blood cell (RBC) FA content was quantified by gas chromatography. Implications of participation in a nutrigenetics study and awareness of omega-3 FAs were assessed with online questionnaires. Upon completion of the study, EPA and DHA intake increased significantly (p = 1.0 × 10−4) in all participants. This change was reflected by small increases in RBC %EPA. Participants in the Genetic group showed increased awareness of omega-3 terminology by the end of the study, reported that the dietary recommendations were more useful, and rated cost as a barrier to omega-3 consumption less often than those in the Non-Genetic group. Providing participants FADS1 genetic information did not appear to influence omega-3 intake during the 12 weeks, but did change perceptions and behaviors related to omega-3 FAs in this timeframe. View Full-Text
Keywords: omega-3 fats; nutrigenomics; personalized nutrition; eicosapentaenoic acid; EPA; docosahexaenoic acid; DHA; single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs; fatty acid desaturase 1 omega-3 fats; nutrigenomics; personalized nutrition; eicosapentaenoic acid; EPA; docosahexaenoic acid; DHA; single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs; fatty acid desaturase 1
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Roke, K.; Walton, K.; Klingel, S.L.; Harnett, A.; Subedi, S.; Haines, J.; Mutch, D.M. Evaluating Changes in Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake after Receiving Personal FADS1 Genetic Information: A Randomized Nutrigenetic Intervention. Nutrients 2017, 9, 240.

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