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Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 211; doi:10.3390/nu9030211

Lifestyle and Dietary Determinants of Serum Apolipoprotein A1 and Apolipoprotein B Concentrations: Cross-Sectional Analyses within a Swedish Cohort of 24,984 Individuals

1
Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease—Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, SE-20502 Malmö, Sweden
2
Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, SE-20502 Malmö, Sweden
3
Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, SE-20502 Malmö, Sweden
4
Nutritional Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, SE-20502 Malmö, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract

Low serum apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 concentrations and high serum ApoB concentrations may be better markers of the risk of cardiovascular disease than high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). However, the associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and Apo concentrations have not been investigated in detail. Therefore, this study investigated the associations between Apo concentrations and education, lifestyle factors and dietary intake (macronutrients and 34 food groups). These cross-sectional associations were examined among 24,984 individuals in a Swedish population-based cohort. Baseline examinations of the cohort were conducted between 1991 and 1996. Dietary intake was assessed using a modified diet history method. The main determinants of high ApoA1 concentrations (r between 0.05 and 0.25) were high alcohol consumption, high physical activity, non-smoking, and a low body mass index (BMI), and the main determinants of high ApoB concentrations were smoking and a high BMI. The intake of sucrose and food products containing added sugar (such as pastries, sweets, chocolate, jam/sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages) was negatively correlated with ApoA1 concentrations and positively correlated with ApoB concentrations and the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, whereas the intake of fermented dairy products, such as fermented milk and cheese, was positively correlated with ApoA1 concentrations and negatively correlated with the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio. These results indicate that smoking, obesity, low physical activity, low alcohol consumption and a diet high in sugar and low in fermented dairy products are correlated with an unfavorable Apo profile. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; nutrition; apolipoproteins; epidemiology diet; nutrition; apolipoproteins; epidemiology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Frondelius, K.; Borg, M.; Ericson, U.; Borné, Y.; Melander, O.; Sonestedt, E. Lifestyle and Dietary Determinants of Serum Apolipoprotein A1 and Apolipoprotein B Concentrations: Cross-Sectional Analyses within a Swedish Cohort of 24,984 Individuals. Nutrients 2017, 9, 211.

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