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Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 203; doi:10.3390/nu9030203

Iron Intake and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

1
Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, Boadilla del Monte, 28668 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II and Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Granada, 18100 Granada, Spain
3
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
4
CIBEROBN, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Carlos III Health Institute, 28029 Madrid, Spain
5
ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Technical University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
6
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmacy, Madrid Complutense University, 28040 Madrid, Spain
7
Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain
8
Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), 28010 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 January 2017 / Revised: 18 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract

Background: Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world. It is frequent in both developed and developing countries and mainly affects women of childbearing age and children. Methods: Results were derived from the ANIBES cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years, n = 2009). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. Results: Total median dietary iron intake was 9.8 mg/day for women and 11.3 mg/day for men. Highest intakes were observed among plausible adolescent reporters (13.3 mg/day), followed by adults (13.0 mg/day), elderly (12.7 mg/day), and children (12.2 mg/day). Prevalence of adequacy for iron intakes as assessed by EFSA criteria was higher than for the Spanish Recommended Iron Intake values in all age groups. Females had lower adequacy than males for both criteria, 27.3% and 17.0% vs. 77.2% and 57.0% respectively. Cereals or grains (26.7%–27.4%), meats and derivatives (19.8%–22.7%), and vegetables (10.3%–12.4%) were the major iron contributors. Conclusion: Higher iron intakes were observed in adolescents and were highest for non-heme iron. The prevalence of adequate iron intake according to EFSA criteria was higher than compared to national recommendations, and women had the lowest intakes. Therefore, there is a need to define standard dietary reference intake to determine inadequate iron intakes in the Spanish population. View Full-Text
Keywords: micronutrients; iron; ANIBES Study; dietary survey; food sources micronutrients; iron; ANIBES Study; dietary survey; food sources
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Samaniego-Vaesken, M.L.; Partearroyo, T.; Olza, J.; Aranceta-Bartrina, J.; Gil, Á.; González-Gross, M.; Ortega, R.M.; Serra-Majem, L.; Varela-Moreiras, G. Iron Intake and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 203.

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