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Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 180; doi:10.3390/nu9020180

The Effects of Iodine Fortified Milk on the Iodine Status of Lactating Mothers and Infants in an Area with a Successful Salt Iodization Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

1
Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 19395-4763 Tehran, Iran
2
Department of Nutrition and Clinical Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 19395-4741 Tehran, Iran
3
Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 19395-4763 Tehran, Iran
4
Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 19395-4763 Tehran, Iran
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
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Abstract

Iodine deficiency during the first two years of life may cause irreversible brain damage and mental retardation. The aim of the present study was to investigate, for the first time, the effect of iodine fortified milk on the iodine status of lactating mothers and their infants. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 84 lactating mother-infant pairs from health care centers were randomly selected. After meeting the inclusion criteria, lactating mothers were randomly assigned to two groups: the iodine fortified milk group and the control group (n = 42 each). Maternal and infant urine and breast milk samples were collected at 3–5 (baseline), 7, 10, 14 days, and 1 month postpartum, for a measurement of the iodine concentration. A total of 84 lactating mothers, with a mean age of 28.2 ± 4.5 years, and 84 infants, with a mean age of 4.2 ± 0.7 days, were included in the study. Compared to mothers of the control group, mothers receiving iodine fortified milk had higher urinary (p < 0.001) and breast milk (p < 0.001) iodine concentrations. Urinary iodine levels in infants revealed no significant differences between the two groups. The findings of this study indicate that supplementation with daily iodine fortified milk provides iodine nutrition adequacy among lactating mothers. However, it had no effect on the iodine status of infants, who were previously iodine sufficient. View Full-Text
Keywords: iodine status; lactating mothers; infants; iodine fortified milk; urinary iodine; breast milk iodine iodine status; lactating mothers; infants; iodine fortified milk; urinary iodine; breast milk iodine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nazeri, P.; Mirmiran, P.; Tahmasebinejad, Z.; Hedayati, M.; Delshad, H.; Azizi, F. The Effects of Iodine Fortified Milk on the Iodine Status of Lactating Mothers and Infants in an Area with a Successful Salt Iodization Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2017, 9, 180.

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