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Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 173; doi:10.3390/nu9020173

The Effects of Moderate Whole Grain Consumption on Fasting Glucose and Lipids, Gastrointestinal Symptoms, and Microbiota

1
Department of Nutrition, University of California at Davis, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2
Western Human Nutrition Research Center, USDA-ARS, 430 West Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616, USA
3
Food Science and Technology, University of California at Davis, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 1 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3370 KB, uploaded 21 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

This study was designed to determine if providing wheat, corn, and rice as whole (WG) or refined grains (RG) under free-living conditions will change parameters of health over a six-week intervention in healthy, habitual non-WG consumers. Measurements of body composition, fecal microbiota, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides were made at baseline and post intervention. Subjects were given adequate servings of either WG or RG products based on their caloric need and asked to keep records of grain consumption, bowel movements, and GI symptoms weekly. After six weeks, subjects repeated baseline testing. Significant decreases in total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol were seen after the WG treatments but were not observed in the RG treatment. During Week 6, bowel movement frequency increased with increased WG consumption. No significant differences in microbiota were seen between baseline and post intervention, although, abundance of order Erysipelotrichales increased in RG subjects who ate more than 50% of the RG market basket products. Increasing consumption of WGs can alter parameters of health, but more research is needed to better elucidate the relationship between the amount consumed and the health-related outcome. View Full-Text
Keywords: whole grains; maize; brown rice; whole wheat; fasting glucose; fasting blood lipids; microbiota; bowel movement frequency; gastrointestinal symptoms whole grains; maize; brown rice; whole wheat; fasting glucose; fasting blood lipids; microbiota; bowel movement frequency; gastrointestinal symptoms
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cooper, D.N.; Kable, M.E.; Marco, M.L.; De Leon, A.; Rust, B.; Baker, J.E.; Horn, W.; Burnett, D.; Keim, N.L. The Effects of Moderate Whole Grain Consumption on Fasting Glucose and Lipids, Gastrointestinal Symptoms, and Microbiota. Nutrients 2017, 9, 173.

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