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Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 168; doi:10.3390/nu9020168

Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study †

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Granada, Campus de la Salud, Avda. del Conocimiento, Armilla, 18100 Granada, Spain
2
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, 18012 Granada, Spain
3
CIBEROBN, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Carlos III Health Institute, 28029 Madrid, Spain
4
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea 1, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
5
ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Technical University of Madrid, c/Martín Fierro 7, 28040 Madrid, Spain
6
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmacy, Madrid Complutense University, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
7
Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Faculty of Health Science, c/Doctor Pasteur s/n Trasera del Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain
8
Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), 28010 Madrid, Spain
9
Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, Urb. Montepríncipe, Crta. Boadilla Km 53, Boadilla del Monte, 28668 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
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Abstract

Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Mean ± SEM (range) total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71–2551 mg/day), 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331–4429 mg/day), 222 ± 2 mg/day (73–782 mg/day), and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0–74.2 µg/day), respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. View Full-Text
Keywords: ANIBES study; calcium; food intake; magnesium; misreporting; nutrients; phosphorus; vitamin D ANIBES study; calcium; food intake; magnesium; misreporting; nutrients; phosphorus; vitamin D
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MDPI and ACS Style

Olza, J.; Aranceta-Bartrina, J.; González-Gross, M.; Ortega, R.M.; Serra-Majem, L.; Varela-Moreiras, G.; Gil, Á. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study †. Nutrients 2017, 9, 168.

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