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Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 158; doi:10.3390/nu9020158

Effects of Acute Blueberry Flavonoids on Mood in Children and Young Adults

School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 7BE, UK
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Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
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Abstract

Epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of flavonoids (usually via fruits and vegetables) is associated with decreased risk of developing depression. One plausible explanation for this association is the well-documented beneficial effects of flavonoids on executive function (EF). Impaired EF is linked to cognitive processes (e.g., rumination) that maintain depression and low mood; therefore, improved EF may reduce depressionogenic cognitive processes and improve mood. Study 1: 21 young adults (18–21 years old) consumed a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink and a matched placebo in a counterbalanced cross-over design. Study 2: 50 children (7–10 years old) were randomly assigned to a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink or a matched placebo. In both studies, participants and researchers were blind to the experimental condition, and mood was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule before and 2 h after consumption of the drinks. In both studies, the blueberry intervention increased positive affect (significant drink by session interaction) but had no effect on negative affect. This observed effect of flavonoids on positive affect in two independent samples is of potential practical value in improving public health. If the effect of flavonoids on positive affect is replicated, further investigation will be needed to identify the mechanisms that link flavonoid interventions with improved positive mood. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; mood; affect; dysphoria; cognition; flavonoid; blueberries; children; young adults depression; mood; affect; dysphoria; cognition; flavonoid; blueberries; children; young adults
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khalid, S.; Barfoot, K.L.; May, G.; Lamport, D.J.; Reynolds, S.A.; Williams, C.M. Effects of Acute Blueberry Flavonoids on Mood in Children and Young Adults. Nutrients 2017, 9, 158.

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