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Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 106; doi:10.3390/nu9020106

Body Composition, Nutritional Profile and Muscular Fitness Affect Bone Health in a Sample of Schoolchildren from Colombia: The Fuprecol Study

1
Centro de Estudios para la Medición de la Actividad Física (CEMA), Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Rosario, Bogota DC 111221, Colombia
2
Laboratorio de Ciencias de la Actividad Física, el Deporte y la Salud, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Región Metropolitana, Santiago 7500618, Chile
3
Departamento de Enfermería, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud Avda, De la Ilustración, s/n, (18016), Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071, Spain
4
Grupo CTS-436, Adscrito al Centro de Investigación Mente, Cerebro y Comportamiento (CIMCYC), Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071, Spain
5
Children’s Health and Exercise Research Centre (CHERC), Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK
6
GENUD “Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development” Research Group, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50009, Spain
7
Grupo GICAEDS, Facultad de Cultura Física, Deporte y Recreación, Universidad Santo Tomás, Bogotá DC 111221, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 November 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 3 February 2017
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Abstract

The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between body composition, nutritional profile, muscular fitness (MF) and bone health in a sample of children and adolescents from Colombia. Participants included 1118 children and adolescents (54.6% girls). Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (c-BUA) was obtained as a marker of bone health. Body composition (fat mass and lean mass) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Furthermore height, weight, waist circumference and Tanner stage were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Standing long-jump (SLJ) and isometric handgrip dynamometry were used respectively as indicators of lower and upper body muscular fitness. A muscular index score was also computed by summing up the standardised values of both SLJ and handgrip strength. Dietary intake and degree of adherence to the Mediterranean diet were assessed by a 7-day recall questionnaire for food frequency and the Kidmed questionnaire. Poor bone health was considered using a z-score cut off of ≤−1.5 standard deviation. Once the results were adjusted for age and Tanner stage, the predisposing factors of having a c-BUA z-score ≤−1.5 standard deviation included being underweight or obese, having an unhealthy lean mass, having an unhealthy fat mass, SLJ performance, handgrip performance, and unhealthy muscular index score. In conclusion, body composition (fat mass and lean body mass) and MF both influenced bone health in a sample of children and adolescents from Colombia. Thus promoting strength adaptation and preservation in Colombian youth will help to improve bone health, an important protective factor against osteoporosis in later life. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcaneal ultrasound; bone health; body fat; muscular strength; calcium calcaneal ultrasound; bone health; body fat; muscular strength; calcium
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Forero-Bogotá, M.A.; Ojeda-Pardo, M.L.; García-Hermoso, A.; Correa-Bautista, J.E.; González-Jiménez, E.; Schmidt-RíoValle, J.; Navarro-Pérez, C.F.; Gracia-Marco, L.; Vlachopoulos, D.; Martínez-Torres, J.; Ramírez-Vélez, R. Body Composition, Nutritional Profile and Muscular Fitness Affect Bone Health in a Sample of Schoolchildren from Colombia: The Fuprecol Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 106.

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