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Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121369

Anti-Atherogenic Activity of Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Bee Pollen

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 4, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
2
Department of Toxicology and Bioanalysis, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 4, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
3
Department of Skin Structural Studies, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Kasztanowa 3, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenol-rich ethanol extract of bee pollen (EEP) on atherosclerosis induced by a high-fat diet in ApoE-knockout mice. EEP was given with feed in two doses of 0.1 and 1 g/kg body mass (BM). The studies have been conducted in a period of 16 weeks. The following factors were estimated: total cholesterol (TC), oxidized low density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II (ANG II) in the 5th, 10th, 12th, 14th, and 16th week of the experiment. In the last, i.e., 16th week of the studies the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) was also estimated histopathologically. Supplementing diet with EEP resulted in decreasing TC level. EEP reduced oxidative stress by lowering the levels of ox-LDL, ADMA, ANG II and ACE. EEP protected coronary arteries by significantly limiting the development of atherosclerosis (the dose of 0.1 g/kg BM) or completely preventing its occurrence (the dose of 1 g/kg BM). The obtained results demonstrate that EEP may be useful as a potential anti-atherogenic agent. View Full-Text
Keywords: bee pollen; polyphenols; atherosclerosis; oxidised low density lipoproteins (ox-LDL); asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA); angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE); angiotensin II (ANG II) bee pollen; polyphenols; atherosclerosis; oxidised low density lipoproteins (ox-LDL); asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA); angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE); angiotensin II (ANG II)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Rzepecka-Stojko, A.; Stojko, J.; Jasik, K.; Buszman, E. Anti-Atherogenic Activity of Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Bee Pollen. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1369.

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