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Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1366; doi:10.3390/nu9121366

Dietary Patterns in Relation to Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in Poland: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
The Department of the Prevention of Alimentary Tract Diseases, The Institute of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. IX Wieków Kielc 19, 25-317 Kielce, Poland
2
The Department of Surgery and Surgical Nursing with the Scientific Research Laboratory, The Institute of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. IX Wieków Kielc 19, 25-317 Kielce, Poland
3
The Department of Developmental Age Research, Institute of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. IX Wieków Kielc 19, 25-317 Kielce, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 17 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Abstract

In several populations the associations between diet and the risk of metabolic syndrome have not been fully examined yet. The aim of the study is to identify the main dietary patterns among Polish adults and the evaluation of the relationships of these patterns with metabolic syndrome and its components. The study was conducted on a group of 7997 participants, aged between 37 and 66 years old. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three dietary patterns were identified and designated as: “Healthy”, “Westernized” and “Traditional-carbohydrate”. In the adjusted model, a higher score in the “Westernized” pattern aligns with a higher risk of abnormal glucose concentration (ptrend = 0.000), but with a lower risk of abnormal High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol HDL-cholesterol concentration (ptrend = 0.024). Higher scores in the “Traditional-carbohydrate” pattern were connected with the risk of abdominal obesity (ptrend = 0.001) and increased triglycerides concentration (ptrend = 0.050). Our results suggest that adherence to the “Traditional-carbohydrate” dietary pattern, characterized by higher intakes of refined grains, potatoes, sugar and sweets is associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity and triglyceridemia. A “Westernized” dietary pattern on the other hand, is related to hyperglycemia. The study results can be used for community-based health promotion and intervention programs to prevent or better manage chronic diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary patterns; adults; metabolic syndrome; International Diabetes Federation/2009 dietary patterns; adults; metabolic syndrome; International Diabetes Federation/2009
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Suliga, E.; Kozieł, D.; Cieśla, E.; Rębak, D.; Głuszek, S. Dietary Patterns in Relation to Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in Poland: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1366.

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