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Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1309; doi:10.3390/nu9121309

Food and Nutrient Intake and Nutrient Sources in 1-Year-Old Infants in Finland: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

1
Children’s Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Biomedicum 2C, P.O. Box 705, 00020 HUS Helsinki, Finland
2
Division of Nutrition, Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
3
Folkhälsan Research Center, Haartmaninkatu 8, P.O. Box 63, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
4
Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institute and Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract

The infant diet has short- and long-term health consequences. Updated data regarding the dietary intake of Finnish infants are lacking. The objectives of this study were to describe infant food and nutrient intake and to identify food sources of the nutrients. Altogether, 739 healthy infants were studied. Dietary intake and breastfeeding frequency were assessed with a three-day food record at 1 year of age. Dietary intake was calculated separately for non-breastfed and breastfed infants. One-third (36%) of the infants were partially breastfed and 95% consumed mass-produced baby foods. The infants’ diet consisted mainly of infant formula, dairy milk, porridges, fruit and berry foods, and meat dishes. The mean vegetable, fruit and berry consumption was 199 g/day. Most nutrient intakes were adequate except for fat, linoleic acid, vitamin D and iron from food. Mean sucrose intake, as a percentage of total energy intake (E%), was 5–6 E%. High protein intake (>20 E%) was observed in 19% of non-breastfed infants. Overall, the infants’ diet was favorable since vegetable and fruit consumption was reasonably high and nutrient intake was mostly adequate. However, the fat intake was lower, and protein intake higher than recommended. Increasing the consumption of vegetable oils and reducing the intake of red meat and dairy milk may further improve the diet of 1-year-olds. View Full-Text
Keywords: infant nutrition; breastfeeding; food consumption; nutrient intake infant nutrition; breastfeeding; food consumption; nutrient intake
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hauta-alus, H.H.; Korkalo, L.; Holmlund-Suila, E.M.; Rosendahl, J.; Valkama, S.M.; Enlund-Cerullo, M.; Helve, O.M.; Hytinantti, T.K.; Mäkitie, O.M.; Andersson, S.; Viljakainen, H.T. Food and Nutrient Intake and Nutrient Sources in 1-Year-Old Infants in Finland: A Cross-Sectional Analysis. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1309.

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