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Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1232; doi:10.3390/nu9111232

Integrated Evaluation of the Potential Health Benefits of Einkorn-Based Breads

Department for Life Quality Studies, University of Bologna, Corso Augusto 237, 47921 Rimini, Italy
Department of Agri-Food Sciences and Technologies, University of Bologna, Piazza Goidanich 60, 47521 Cesena, Italy
Department of New Products and Department of Bioassays, AINIA Technological Centre, c/Benjamín Franklin 5-11, Paterna, 46980 Valencia, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
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Nowadays the high nutritional value of whole grains is recognized, and there is an increasing interest in the ancient varieties for producing wholegrain food products with enhanced nutritional characteristics. Among ancient crops, einkorn could represent a valid alternative. In this work, einkorn flours were analyzed for their content in carotenoids and in free and bound phenolic acids, and compared to wheat flours. The most promising flours were used to produce conventional and sourdough fermented breads. Breads were in vitro digested, and characterized before and after digestion. The four breads having the best characteristics were selected, and the product of their digestion was used to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effect using Caco-2 cells. Our results confirm the higher carotenoid levels in einkorn than in modern wheats, and the effectiveness of sourdough fermentation in maintaining these levels, despite the longer exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Moreover, in cultured cells einkorn bread evidenced an anti-inflammatory effect, although masked by the effect of digestive fluid. This study represents the first integrated evaluation of the potential health benefit of einkorn-based bakery products compared to wheat-based ones, and contributes to our knowledge of ancient grains. View Full-Text
Keywords: einkorn; wheat; carotenoids; bread; phenolic acids; sourdough fermentation; in vitro digestion; Caco-2 cells; anti-inflammatory effect einkorn; wheat; carotenoids; bread; phenolic acids; sourdough fermentation; in vitro digestion; Caco-2 cells; anti-inflammatory effect

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Antognoni, F.; Mandrioli, R.; Bordoni, A.; Di Nunzio, M.; Viadel, B.; Gallego, E.; Villalba, M.P.; Tomás-Cobos, L.; Taneyo Saa, D.L.; Gianotti, A. Integrated Evaluation of the Potential Health Benefits of Einkorn-Based Breads. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1232.

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