Next Article in Journal
Asthmatic Patients with Vitamin D Deficiency have Decreased Exacerbations after Vitamin Replacement
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Levels in Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: The Alpha Omega Trial
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1232; doi:10.3390/nu9111232

Integrated Evaluation of the Potential Health Benefits of Einkorn-Based Breads

1
Department for Life Quality Studies, University of Bologna, Corso Augusto 237, 47921 Rimini, Italy
2
Department of Agri-Food Sciences and Technologies, University of Bologna, Piazza Goidanich 60, 47521 Cesena, Italy
3
Department of New Products and Department of Bioassays, AINIA Technological Centre, c/Benjamín Franklin 5-11, Paterna, 46980 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1144 KB, uploaded 11 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

Nowadays the high nutritional value of whole grains is recognized, and there is an increasing interest in the ancient varieties for producing wholegrain food products with enhanced nutritional characteristics. Among ancient crops, einkorn could represent a valid alternative. In this work, einkorn flours were analyzed for their content in carotenoids and in free and bound phenolic acids, and compared to wheat flours. The most promising flours were used to produce conventional and sourdough fermented breads. Breads were in vitro digested, and characterized before and after digestion. The four breads having the best characteristics were selected, and the product of their digestion was used to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effect using Caco-2 cells. Our results confirm the higher carotenoid levels in einkorn than in modern wheats, and the effectiveness of sourdough fermentation in maintaining these levels, despite the longer exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Moreover, in cultured cells einkorn bread evidenced an anti-inflammatory effect, although masked by the effect of digestive fluid. This study represents the first integrated evaluation of the potential health benefit of einkorn-based bakery products compared to wheat-based ones, and contributes to our knowledge of ancient grains. View Full-Text
Keywords: einkorn; wheat; carotenoids; bread; phenolic acids; sourdough fermentation; in vitro digestion; Caco-2 cells; anti-inflammatory effect einkorn; wheat; carotenoids; bread; phenolic acids; sourdough fermentation; in vitro digestion; Caco-2 cells; anti-inflammatory effect
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Antognoni, F.; Mandrioli, R.; Bordoni, A.; Di Nunzio, M.; Viadel, B.; Gallego, E.; Villalba, M.P.; Tomás-Cobos, L.; Taneyo Saa, D.L.; Gianotti, A. Integrated Evaluation of the Potential Health Benefits of Einkorn-Based Breads. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1232.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top