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Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1221; doi:10.3390/nu9111221

High Neonatal Blood Iron Content Is Associated with the Risk of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

1
Copenhagen Diabetes Research Center (CPH-DIRECT), Department of Paediatrics, Herlev University Hospital, 2730 Herlev, Denmark
2
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, 2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark
3
Section of Biostatistics, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2099 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 September 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract

(1) Background: Iron requirement increases during pregnancy and iron supplementation is therefore recommended in many countries. However, excessive iron intake may lead to destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, we aim to test if higher neonatal iron content in blood is associated with the risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in childhood; (2) Methods: A case-control study was conducted, including 199 children diagnosed with T1D before the age of 16 years from 1991 to 2005 and 199 controls matched on date of birth. Information on confounders was available in 181 cases and 154 controls. Iron was measured on a neonatal single dried blood spot sample and was analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate if iron content in whole blood was associated with the risk of T1D; (3) Results: A doubling of iron content increased the odds of developing T1D more than two-fold (odds ratio (95% CI), 2.55 (1.04; 6.24)). Iron content increased with maternal age (p = 0.04) and girls had higher content than boys (p = 0.01); (4) Conclusions: Higher neonatal iron content associates to an increased risk of developing T1D before the age of 16 years. Iron supplementation during early childhood needs further investigation, including the causes of high iron in neonates. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes mellitus; type 1; iron; embryonic and fetal development; pediatrics; newborn diabetes mellitus; type 1; iron; embryonic and fetal development; pediatrics; newborn
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kyvsgaard, J.N.; Overgaard, A.J.; Thorsen, S.U.; Hansen, T.H.; Pipper, C.B.; Mortensen, H.B.; Pociot, F.; Svensson, J. High Neonatal Blood Iron Content Is Associated with the Risk of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1221.

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