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Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1125; doi:10.3390/nu9101125

Serum Magnesium Levels in Preterm Infants Are Higher Than Adult Levels: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Department of Neonatology, Université de Liège, CHR Citadelle, 4000 Liège, Belgium
2
Radboudumc Amalia Children’s Hospital, Radboud University Medical Center, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
3
Centre d’Etudes Périnatales de l’Océan Indien (EA 7388), CHU La Réunion—Site Sud Saint Pierre, BP 350 97448 Saint Pierre CEDEX, France
4
Réanimation Néonatale et Pédiatrique, Néonatologie, CHU La Réunion—Site Sud Saint Pierre, BP 350 97448 Saint Pierre CEDEX, France
5
Department of Neonatal Intensive Care, Oslo University Hospital, 0318 Oslo, Norway
6
Department of Neonatal Pediatrics and Intensive Care and Neuropediatrics, Rouen University Hospital, and INSERM, Laboratoire NeoVasc ERI28, Normandy University, 76000 Rouen, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract

Magnesium (Mg) is an essential mineral in the body, impacting the synthesis of biomacromolecules, bone matrix development, energy production, as well as heart, nerve, and muscle function. Although the importance of Mg is evident, reference values for serum Mg (sMg) in pediatric patients (more specifically, in neonates) are not well established. This systematic literature review and meta-analysis (using 47 eligible studies) aims to quantify normal and tolerable ranges of sMg concentrations during the neonatal period and to highlight the factors influencing Mg levels and the importance of regulating sMg levels during pregnancy and birth. In newborns without Mg supplementation during pregnancy, magnesium levels at birth (0.76 (95% CI: 0.52, 0.99) mmol/L) were similar to that of mothers during pregnancy (0.74 (95% CI: 0.43, 1.04) mmol/L), but increased during the first week of life (0.91 (95% CI: 0.55, 1.26) mmol/L) before returning to adult levels. This pattern was also seen in newborns with Mg supplementation during pregnancy, where the average was 1.29 (95% CI: 0.50, 2.08) mmol/L at birth and 1.44 (95% CI: 0.61, 2.27) mmol/L during the first week of life. Factors influencing these levels include prenatal Mg supplementation, gestational age, birth weight, renal maturity/function, and postnatal Mg intake. Elevated Mg levels (>2.5 mmol/L) have been associated with an increased risk of mortality, admission into intensive care, hypotonia, hypotension, and respiratory depression but sMg concentrations up to 2.0 mmol/L appear to be well tolerated in neonates, requiring adequate survey and minimal intervention. View Full-Text
Keywords: systematic literature review; meta-analysis; magnesium; neonates; cord blood; nutrition; supplementation systematic literature review; meta-analysis; magnesium; neonates; cord blood; nutrition; supplementation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rigo, J.; Pieltain, C.; Christmann, V.; Bonsante, F.; Moltu, S.J.; Iacobelli, S.; Marret, S. Serum Magnesium Levels in Preterm Infants Are Higher Than Adult Levels: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1125.

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