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Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1090; doi:10.3390/nu9101090

Effect of Green and Brown Propolis Extracts on the Expression Levels of microRNAs, mRNAs and Proteins, Related to Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

1
Department of Drug Sciences, Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia, Italy
2
Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Via Forlanini 6, 27100 Pavia, Italy
These two authors share the first authorship.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 1 October 2017
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Abstract

A large body of evidence highlights that propolis exerts many biological functions that can be ascribed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory components, including different polyphenol classes. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms are yet unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms at the basis of propolis anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The effects of two brown and green propolis extracts—chemically characterized by RP-HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn—on the expression levels of miRNAs associated with inflammatory responses (miR-19a-3p and miR-203a-3p) and oxidative stress (miR-27a-3p and miR-17-3p), were determined in human keratinocyte HaCat cell lines, treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations. The results showed that brown propolis, whose major polyphenolic components are flavonoids, induced changes in the expression levels of all miRNAs, and was more active than green propolis (whose main polyphenolic components are hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) which caused changes only in the expression levels of miR-19a-3p and miR-27a-3p. In addition, only brown propolis was able to modify (1) the expression levels of mRNAs, the target of the reported miRNAs, which code for Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), Nuclear Factor, Erythroid 2 Like 2 (NFE2L2) and Glutathione Peroxidase 2 (GPX2), and (2) the protein levels of TNF-α and NFE2L2. In conclusion, brown and green propolis, which showed different metabolite profiles, exert their biological functions through different mechanisms of action. View Full-Text
Keywords: brown and green propolis; anti-inflammatory activity; antioxidant activity; microRNAs; mRNAs; proteins brown and green propolis; anti-inflammatory activity; antioxidant activity; microRNAs; mRNAs; proteins
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zaccaria, V.; Curti, V.; Di Lorenzo, A.; Baldi, A.; Maccario, C.; Sommatis, S.; Mocchi, R.; Daglia, M. Effect of Green and Brown Propolis Extracts on the Expression Levels of microRNAs, mRNAs and Proteins, Related to Oxidative Stress and Inflammation. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1090.

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