Next Article in Journal
Retinoic Acid and Its Role in Modulating Intestinal Innate Immunity
Previous Article in Journal
Can Malaysian Young Adults Report Dietary Intake Using a Food Diary Mobile Application? A Pilot Study on Acceptability and Compliance
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 67; doi:10.3390/nu9010067

Adding Salt to Meals as a Risk Factor of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case–Control Study

Institute of Endocrinology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Eiveniu 2, 50009 Kaunas, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 October 2016 / Revised: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [231 KB, uploaded 13 January 2017]

Abstract

Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is thought to arise from the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. It is important to identify modifiable risk factors that may help to reduce the risk of diabetes. Data on salt intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between adding salt to prepared meals and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods: In a case–control study, we included 234 cases, all of whom were patients aged 35–86 years with a newly confirmed diagnosis of T2DM, and 468 controls that were free of the disease. Cases and controls (ratio 1:2) were matched by gender and age (±5 years). A questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors for diabetes. Adding salt to prepared meals was assessed according to: Never, when there was not enough, or almost every time without tasting. The odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for type 2 diabetes was calculated using a conditional logistic regression. Results: The cases had a higher body mass index and a significantly lower education level compared to the controls. Variables such as waist circumference, body mass index, eating speed, smoking, family history of diabetes, arterial hypertension, plasma triglycerides, educational level, occupational status, morning exercise, marital status, daily urine sodium excretion, and daily energy intake were retained in the models as confounders. After adjusting for possible confounders, an approximately two-fold increased risk of type 2 diabetes was determined in subjects who add salt to prepared meals when “it is not enough” or “almost every time without tasting” (1.82; 95% CI 1.19–2.78; p = 0.006) compared with never adding salt. Conclusion: Presented data suggest the possible relationship between additional adding of salt to prepared meals and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; salt; salt intake; risk factors; case–control study type 2 diabetes; salt; salt intake; risk factors; case–control study
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Radzeviciene, L.; Ostrauskas, R. Adding Salt to Meals as a Risk Factor of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case–Control Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 67.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top