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Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 56; doi:10.3390/nu9010056

Coffee Intake Is Associated with a Lower Liver Stiffness in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B

1
Gastroenterology and Hepatology Unit, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168, Australia
2
Centre for Inflammatory Disease, School of Clinical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne 3168, Australia
3
School of Clinical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne 3168, Australia
4
Monash Centre for Health, Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne 3168, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 2 January 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
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Abstract

There is emerging evidence for the positive effects or benefits of coffee in patients with liver disease. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection to determine the effects of coffee intake on a non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis: liver stiffness assessed by transient elastography (TE). We assessed coffee and tea intake and measured TE in 1018 patients with NAFLD, HCV, and HBV (155 with NAFLD, 378 with HCV and 485 with HBV). Univariate and multivariate regression models were performed taking into account potential confounders. Liver stiffness was higher in males compared to females (p < 0.05). Patients with HBV had lower liver stiffness than those with HCV and NAFLD. After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, M or XL probe, and disease state (NAFLD, HCV, and HBV status), those who drank 2 or more cups of coffee per day had a lower liver stiffness (p = 0.044). Tea consumption had no effect (p = 0.9). Coffee consumption decreases liver stiffness, which may indicate less fibrosis and inflammation, independent of disease state. This study adds further evidence to the notion of coffee maybe beneficial in patients with liver disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: liver disease; coffee; functional foods; elastography liver disease; coffee; functional foods; elastography
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hodge, A.; Lim, S.; Goh, E.; Wong, O.; Marsh, P.; Knight, V.; Sievert, W.; de Courten, B. Coffee Intake Is Associated with a Lower Liver Stiffness in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B. Nutrients 2017, 9, 56.

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