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Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 24; doi:10.3390/nu9010024

Neuroprotective Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation Induced by β-Amyloid in Rats

1
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
2
Center for Research and Development of Herbal Health Products, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
3
Neuroscience Research and Development Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 October 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 December 2016 / Published: 3 January 2017
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Abstract

Neuroinflammation is pathological evidence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that likely starts as a host defense response to the damaging effects of the β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in the brain. The activation of microglia may promote the neurodegenerative process through the release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which may lead to neuronal damage and eventual death. Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been reported to have multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of AGE on Aβ (1-42)-induced cognitive dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Adult male Wistar rats were given AGE (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW, body weight), orally administered, daily for 56 days. They were then injected with 1 μL of aggregated Aβ (1-42) into the lateral ventricles; bilaterally. Seven days later, their recognition memory was evaluated using a novel object recognition (NOR) test. Then the rats were sacrificed to investigate the alteration of microglia cells, IL-1β and TNFα in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The results indicated that AGE at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW significantly improved short-term recognition memory in cognitively impaired rats. In addition, AGE significantly minimized the inflammatory response by reducing the activation of microglia and IL-1β to the levels found in the control, which is similar to the results found in Celebrex-treated rats. In conclusion, AGE may be useful for improving the short-term recognition memory and relieve the neuroinflammation in Aβ-induced rats. View Full-Text
Keywords: aged garlic extract; Alzheimer’s disease; β-amyloid; neuroinflammation; neuroprotection; object recognition aged garlic extract; Alzheimer’s disease; β-amyloid; neuroinflammation; neuroprotection; object recognition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nillert, N.; Pannangrong, W.; Welbat, J.U.; Chaijaroonkhanarak, W.; Sripanidkulchai, K.; Sripanidkulchai, B. Neuroprotective Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation Induced by β-Amyloid in Rats. Nutrients 2017, 9, 24.

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