Neuroprotective Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation Induced by β-Amyloid in Rats
AbstractNeuroinflammation is pathological evidence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that likely starts as a host defense response to the damaging effects of the β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in the brain. The activation of microglia may promote the neurodegenerative process through the release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which may lead to neuronal damage and eventual death. Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been reported to have multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of AGE on Aβ (1-42)-induced cognitive dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Adult male Wistar rats were given AGE (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW, body weight), orally administered, daily for 56 days. They were then injected with 1 μL of aggregated Aβ (1-42) into the lateral ventricles; bilaterally. Seven days later, their recognition memory was evaluated using a novel object recognition (NOR) test. Then the rats were sacrificed to investigate the alteration of microglia cells, IL-1β and TNFα in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The results indicated that AGE at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW significantly improved short-term recognition memory in cognitively impaired rats. In addition, AGE significantly minimized the inflammatory response by reducing the activation of microglia and IL-1β to the levels found in the control, which is similar to the results found in Celebrex-treated rats. In conclusion, AGE may be useful for improving the short-term recognition memory and relieve the neuroinflammation in Aβ-induced rats. View Full-Text
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Nillert, N.; Pannangrong, W.; Welbat, J.U.; Chaijaroonkhanarak, W.; Sripanidkulchai, K.; Sripanidkulchai, B. Neuroprotective Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation Induced by β-Amyloid in Rats. Nutrients 2017, 9, 24.
Nillert N, Pannangrong W, Welbat JU, Chaijaroonkhanarak W, Sripanidkulchai K, Sripanidkulchai B. Neuroprotective Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation Induced by β-Amyloid in Rats. Nutrients. 2017; 9(1):24.Chicago/Turabian Style
Nillert, Nutchareeporn; Pannangrong, Wanassanun; Welbat, Jariya U.; Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wunnee; Sripanidkulchai, Kittisak; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn. 2017. "Neuroprotective Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation Induced by β-Amyloid in Rats." Nutrients 9, no. 1: 24.
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