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Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 15; doi:10.3390/nu9010015

Effect of Human Milk Appetite Hormones, Macronutrients, and Infant Characteristics on Gastric Emptying and Breastfeeding Patterns of Term Fully Breastfed Infants

1
School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia
2
School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia
3
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy)
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Abstract

Human milk (HM) components influence infant feeding patterns and nutrient intake, yet it is unclear how they influence gastric emptying (GE), a key component of appetite regulation. This study analyzed GE of a single breastfeed, HM appetite hormones/macronutrients and demographics/anthropometrics/body composition of term fully breastfed infants (n = 41, 2 and/or 5 mo). Stomach volumes (SV) were calculated from pre-/post-feed ultrasound scans, then repeatedly until the next feed. Feed volume (FV) was measured by the test-weigh method. HM samples were analyzed for adiponectin, leptin, fat, lactose, total carbohydrate, lysozyme, and total/whey/casein protein. Linear regression/mixed effect models were used to determine associations between GE/feed variables and HM components/infant anthropometrics/adiposity. Higher FVs were associated with faster (−0.07 [−0.10, −0.03], p < 0.001) GE rate, higher post-feed SVs (0.82 [0.53, 1.12], p < 0.001), and longer GE times (0.24 [0.03, 0.46], p = 0.033). Higher whey protein concentration was associated with higher post-feed SVs (4.99 [0.84, 9.13], p = 0.023). Longer GE time was associated with higher adiponectin concentration (2.29 [0.92, 3.66], p = 0.002) and dose (0.02 [0.01, 0.03], p = 0.005), and lower casein:whey ratio (−65.89 [−107.13, −2.66], p = 0.003). FV and HM composition influence GE and breastfeeding patterns in term breastfed infants. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk; term breastfed infants; gastric emptying; feeding frequency; ultrasound; stomach volumes; appetite hormones; macronutrients; feed volume; anthropometrics; body composition human milk; term breastfed infants; gastric emptying; feeding frequency; ultrasound; stomach volumes; appetite hormones; macronutrients; feed volume; anthropometrics; body composition
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Gridneva, Z.; Kugananthan, S.; Hepworth, A.R.; Tie, W.J.; Lai, C.T.; Ward, L.C.; Hartmann, P.E.; Geddes, D.T. Effect of Human Milk Appetite Hormones, Macronutrients, and Infant Characteristics on Gastric Emptying and Breastfeeding Patterns of Term Fully Breastfed Infants. Nutrients 2017, 9, 15.

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