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Nutrients 2016, 8(9), 574; doi:10.3390/nu8090574

Maternal Dietary Patterns and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study

1
Liggins Institute, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
2
Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
3
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore 117609, Singapore
4
Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Auckland 0632, New Zealand
5
Medical Research Council Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit and NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
6
Department of Maternal Fetal Medicine, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 229899, Singapore
7
Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore 117549, Singapore
8
School of Food and Nutrition, Massey University, Auckland 0632, New Zealand
9
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR, Singapore 117609, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 August 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
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Abstract

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and long term health issues for both the mother and offspring. Previous research has demonstrated associations between maternal diet and GDM development, but evidence in Asian populations is limited. The objective of our study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of GDM in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort. Maternal diet was ascertained using 24-h dietary recalls from participants in the Growing up in Singapore towards healthy outcomes (GUSTO) study—a prospective mother-offspring cohort, and GDM was diagnosed according to 1999 World Health Organisation guidelines. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis, and multivariate regression analyses performed to assess the association with GDM. Of 909 participants, 17.6% were diagnosed with GDM. Three dietary patterns were identified: a vegetable-fruit-rice-based-diet, a seafood-noodle-based-diet and a pasta-cheese-processed-meat-diet. After adjusting for confounding variables, the seafood-noodle-based-diet was associated with a lower likelihood of GDM (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)) = 0.74 (0.59, 0.93). The dietary pattern found to be associated with GDM in our study was substantially different to those reported previously in Western populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal nutrition; gestational diabetes; Asia; dietary patterns; pregnancy maternal nutrition; gestational diabetes; Asia; dietary patterns; pregnancy
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Seymour, J.; Chia, A.; Colega, M.; Jones, B.; McKenzie, E.; Shirong, C.; Godfrey, K.; Kwek, K.; Saw, S.-M.; Conlon, C.; Chong, Y.-S.; Baker, P.; Chong, M.F.F. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 574.

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