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Nutrients 2016, 8(9), 555; doi:10.3390/nu8090555

Evidence Synthesis and Translation for Nutrition Interventions to Combat Micronutrient Deficiencies with Particular Focus on Food Fortification

1
Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood 3125, Australia
2
Centre for Evidence-Based Health Care, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Francie van Zijl Drive, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
3
Cochrane Nutrition, Centre for Evidence-based Health Care, Stellenbosch University and South African Cochrane Centre, South African Medical Research Council, Francie van Zijl Drive, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
4
South African Cochrane Centre, South African Medical Research Council, Francie van Zijl Drive, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 June 2016 / Revised: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 8 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fortification to Combat Micronutrient Deficiencies)
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Abstract

Over two billion people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies. Food fortification is a prominent nutrition intervention to combat such deficiencies; however, its effectiveness, risks, and ethical implications vary depending on the contexts associated with the deficiency it is addressing and the circumstances with its implementation. The aim of this research was to analyse the profile of nutrition interventions for combating micronutrient deficiency with particular focus on food fortification reported in existing systematic reviews (SRs), guidelines and policy statements, and implementation actions for nutrition. A review of secondary data available from online databases of SRs, guidelines and policy statements, and implementation actions, categorised as either “nutrition-specific interventions” (NSpI) or “nutrition-sensitive interventions” (NSeI), was conducted. Currently, there is evidence available for a diversity of food fortification topics, and there has been much translation into action. Indeed, food fortification and micronutrient supplementation interventions and NSpI more broadly dominate the profile of interventions for which there were SRs, guidelines, and policy statements available. The findings demonstrate that, although there is a rational linear relationship between evidence synthesis and translation in formulating policy and actions to combat micronutrient deficiencies, the various nutrition interventions available to help combat micronutrient deficiencies are not equally represented in the evidence synthesis and translation processes. Effective and safe policies and actions to combat micronutrient deficiencies require decisions to be informed from a body of evidence that consists of evidence from a variety of interventions. Into the future, investment in making available a higher number of SRs, guidelines and policy statements, and actions of NSeI is indicated. View Full-Text
Keywords: food fortification; micronutrient deficiency; evidence synthesis; policy; systematic review; nutrition-specific; nutrition-sensitive food fortification; micronutrient deficiency; evidence synthesis; policy; systematic review; nutrition-specific; nutrition-sensitive
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lawrence, M.; Wingrove, K.; Naude, C.; Durao, S. Evidence Synthesis and Translation for Nutrition Interventions to Combat Micronutrient Deficiencies with Particular Focus on Food Fortification. Nutrients 2016, 8, 555.

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