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Nutrients 2016, 8(9), 543; doi:10.3390/nu8090543

Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched High Fat Diet Delays Skeletal Muscle Degradation in Mice

1
Division of Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg SE-41296, Sweden
2
Division of Systems and Synthetic Biology, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg SE-412 96, Sweden
3
Department of Biomedical Informatics, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72204, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 May 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 25 August 2016 / Published: 3 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolically Healthy Obesity)
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Abstract

Low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions such as ageing, obesity and related metabolic disorders are associated with deterioration of skeletal muscle (SkM). Human studies have shown that marine fatty acids influence SkM function, though the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. As a model of diet-induced obesity, we fed C57BL/6J mice either a high fat diet (HFD) with purified marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (HFD-ED), a HFD with corn oil, or normal mouse chow for 8 weeks; and used transcriptomics to identify the molecular effects of EPA and DHA on SkM. Consumption of ED-enriched HFD modulated SkM metabolism through increased gene expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation and slow-fiber type genes compared with HFD-corn oil fed mice. Furthermore, HFD-ED intake increased nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (Nfatc4) protein, which controls fiber-type composition. This data suggests a role for EPA and DHA in mitigating some of the molecular responses due to a HFD in SkM. Overall, the results suggest that increased consumption of the marine fatty acids EPA and DHA may aid in the prevention of molecular processes that lead to muscle deterioration commonly associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); obesity; skeletal-muscle metabolism; mitochondrial β-oxidation; transcriptome eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); obesity; skeletal-muscle metabolism; mitochondrial β-oxidation; transcriptome
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Soni, N.K.; Ross, A.B.; Scheers, N.; Savolainen, O.I.; Nookaew, I.; Gabrielsson, B.G.; Sandberg, A.-S. Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched High Fat Diet Delays Skeletal Muscle Degradation in Mice. Nutrients 2016, 8, 543.

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