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Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 488; doi:10.3390/nu8080488

Effects of Maternal Chromium Restriction on the Long-Term Programming in MAPK Signaling Pathway of Lipid Metabolism in Mice

1
Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Ministry of Health, Translational Medical Center, Department of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China
2
Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 June 2016 / Revised: 2 August 2016 / Accepted: 3 August 2016 / Published: 10 August 2016
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Abstract

It is now broadly accepted that the nutritional environment in early life is a key factor in susceptibility to metabolic diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of maternal chromium restriction in vivo on the modulation of lipid metabolism and the mechanisms involved in this process. Sixteen pregnant C57BL mice were randomly divided into two dietary treatments: a control (C) diet group and a low chromium (L) diet group. The diet treatment was maintained through gestation and lactation period. After weaning, some of the pups continued with either the control diet or low chromium diet (CC or LL), whereas other pups switched to another diet (CL or LC). At 32 weeks of age, serum lipid metabolism, proinflammatory indexes, oxidative stress and anti-oxidant markers, and DNA methylation status in adipose tissue were measured. The results indicated that the maternal low chromium diet increased body weight, fat pad weight, serum triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), malondialdehyde (MDA), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). There was a decrease in serum reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio at 32 weeks of age in female offspring. From adipose tissue, we identified 1214 individual hypomethylated CpG sites and 411 individual hypermethylated CpG sites in the LC group when compared to the CC group. Pathway analysis of the differential methylation genes revealed a significant increase in hypomethylated genes in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in the LC group. Our study highlights the importance of the MAPK signaling pathway in epigenetic changes involved in the lipid metabolism of the offspring from chromium-restricted dams. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA methylation; chromium restriction diet; lipid metabolism; MAPK pathway; metabolic programming DNA methylation; chromium restriction diet; lipid metabolism; MAPK pathway; metabolic programming
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, Q.; Sun, X.; Xiao, X.; Zheng, J.; Li, M.; Yu, M.; Ping, F.; Wang, Z.; Qi, C.; Wang, T.; Wang, X. Effects of Maternal Chromium Restriction on the Long-Term Programming in MAPK Signaling Pathway of Lipid Metabolism in Mice. Nutrients 2016, 8, 488.

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