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Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 470; doi:10.3390/nu8080470

Lean Mass and Body Fat Percentage Are Contradictory Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in Pre-Menopausal Pacific Island Women

1
Institute of Food Science and Technology, Massey University, Auckland 0632, New Zealand
2
School of Sport and Exercise, Massey University, Wellington 6140, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2016 / Revised: 12 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 July 2016 / Published: 30 July 2016
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Abstract

Anecdotally, it is suggested that Pacific Island women have good bone mineral density (BMD) compared to other ethnicities; however, little evidence for this or for associated factors exists. This study aimed to explore associations between predictors of bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2), in pre-menopausal Pacific Island women. Healthy pre-menopausal Pacific Island women (age 16–45 years) were recruited as part of the larger EXPLORE Study. Total body BMD and body composition were assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and air-displacement plethysmography (n = 83). A food frequency questionnaire (n = 56) and current bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (n = 59) were completed. Variables expected to be associated with BMD were applied to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Due to missing data, physical activity and dietary intake factors were considered only in simple correlations. Mean BMD was 1.1 ± 0.08 g/cm2. Bone-free, fat-free lean mass (LMO, 52.4 ± 6.9 kg) and age were positively associated with BMD, and percent body fat (38.4 ± 7.6) was inversely associated with BMD, explaining 37.7% of total variance. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of BMD, while many established contributors to bone health (calcium, physical activity, protein, and vitamin C) were not associated with BMD in this population, partly due to difficulty retrieving dietary data. This highlights the importance of physical activity and protein intake during any weight loss interventions to in order to minimise the loss of muscle mass, whilst maximizing loss of adipose tissue. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone mineral density; Pacific Island; pre-menopausal; body composition; physical activity; dietary intake bone mineral density; Pacific Island; pre-menopausal; body composition; physical activity; dietary intake
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Casale, M.; von Hurst, P.R.; Beck, K.L.; Shultz, S.; Kruger, M.C.; O’Brien, W.; Conlon, C.A.; Kruger, R. Lean Mass and Body Fat Percentage Are Contradictory Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in Pre-Menopausal Pacific Island Women. Nutrients 2016, 8, 470.

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