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Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 452; doi:10.3390/nu8080452

The Effect of Casein Protein Prior to Sleep on Fat Metabolism in Obese Men

1
Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
2
Nutrition Obesity Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
3
Institute of Sports Sciences & Medicine, Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
4
Institute of Successful Longevity, Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
5
Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
6
Human Performance Laboratory, Departments of Kinesiology and Physiology and Center for Health Disparities, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA
7
Discipline of Biokinetics, Exercise and Leisure Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2016 / Revised: 7 July 2016 / Accepted: 21 July 2016 / Published: 27 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products and Human Health)
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Abstract

We have previously shown that ingesting protein at night before sleep is either beneficial or non-detrimental to metabolism, health, and body composition in obese women. However, the overnight protein-induced lipolytic actions and mechanism for improved metabolism and body composition have not been fully established. Therefore, in a crossover design, twelve obese men (age, 27.0 ± 2.2 years) were randomly assigned to ingest (within 30 min of sleep) casein protein (CAS, 120 kcal) or a non-nutritive placebo (PLA) before going to sleep. Markers of fat metabolism (lipolysis, substrate utilization, growth hormone), insulin, glucose, resting energy expenditure (REE), and appetite (questionnaire and ghrelin) were measured. During sleep and the next morning, interstitial glycerol from the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) was measured using microdialysis. There were no differences in SCAAT glycerol (overnight: CAS, 177.4 ± 26.7; PLA, 183.8 ± 20.2 μmol/L; morning: CAS, 171.6 ± 19.1; PLA, 161.5 ± 18.6 μmol/L), substrate utilization, REE, or any blood markers between CAS and PLA. Desire to eat was greater for CAS compared to baseline (p = 0.03), but not different from PLA (baseline: 39 ± 6, CAS: 62 ± 8, PLA: 55 ± 5 mm). CAS consumption before sleep did not affect fat or glucose metabolism, REE, or suppress appetite in hyperinsulemic obese men. CAS may be consumed before sleep without impeding overnight or morning fat metabolism in young, obese men. View Full-Text
Keywords: nighttime eating; sleep; obesity; microdialysis; appetite; casein nighttime eating; sleep; obesity; microdialysis; appetite; casein
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kinsey, A.W.; Cappadona, S.R.; Panton, L.B.; Allman, B.R.; Contreras, R.J.; Hickner, R.C.; Ormsbee, M.J. The Effect of Casein Protein Prior to Sleep on Fat Metabolism in Obese Men. Nutrients 2016, 8, 452.

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