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Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 369; doi:10.3390/nu8060369

Fermented Red Ginseng Potentiates Improvement of Metabolic Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome Rat Models

1
College of Oriental Medicine and Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, 460 Iksandae-ro, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538, Korea
2
Hanbang Body-Fluid Research Center, Wonkwang University, 460 Iksandae-ro, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538, Korea
3
Department of Oriental Medical Ophthalmology & Otolaryngology & Dermatology, College of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, 460 Iksandae-ro, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538, Korea
4
Department of Oral Microbiology and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896, Korea
5
Department of Research Development, Institute of Jinan Red Ginseng, Jinan, Jeonbuk 55442, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 March 2016 / Revised: 27 May 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction)
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Abstract

Metabolic syndrome including obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension is a cluster of risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. Red ginseng (RG), a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. Aim in the present study was to investigate that the effects of fermented red ginseng (FRG) on a high-fructose (HF) diet induced metabolic disorders, and those effects were compared to RG and losartan. Animals were divided into four groups: a control group fed a regular diet and tap water, and fructose groups that were fed a 60% high-fructose (HF) diet with/without RG 250 mg/kg/day or FRG 250 mg/kg/day for eight weeks, respectively. Treatment with FRG significantly suppressed the increments of body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat weight and adipocyte size. Moreover, FRG significantly prevented the development of metabolic disturbances such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Staining with Oil-red-o demonstrated a marked increase of hepatic accumulation of triglycerides, and this increase was prevented by FRG. FRG ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by downregulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adhesion molecules in the aorta. In addition, FRG induced markedly upregulation of Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) in the muscle. These results indicate that FRG ameliorates obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and fatty liver in HF diet rats. More favorable pharmacological effects on HF diet induced metabolic disorders were observed with FRG, compared to an equal dose of RG. These results showed that the pharmacological activity of RG was enhanced by fermentation. Taken together, fermentated red ginseng might be a beneficial therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome. View Full-Text
Keywords: fermented red ginseng; metabolic syndrome; obesity; hyperlipidemia; hypertension fermented red ginseng; metabolic syndrome; obesity; hyperlipidemia; hypertension
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Kho, M.C.; Lee, Y.J.; Park, J.H.; Kim, H.Y.; Yoon, J.J.; Ahn, Y.M.; Tan, R.; Park, M.C.; Cha, J.D.; Choi, K.M.; Kang, D.G.; Lee, H.S. Fermented Red Ginseng Potentiates Improvement of Metabolic Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome Rat Models. Nutrients 2016, 8, 369.

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